THE 20th CENTURY (1900 – ) II
Latest updated 20/4 2018
CONTENTS IN THIS CHAPTER:
1 – WIND BANDS
2 – JOHN PHILIP SOUSA AND HIS FAMOUS SOLOISTS
3 – BRASS BANDS
4 – MARCHING BAND INSTRUMENTS
5 – BRASS BANDS
6 – POPULAR WIND BANDS AND BRASS BANDS
7 – CHAMBER MUSIC / BRASS ENSEMBLES/MIXED ENSEMBLES
8 – JAZZ and RHYTHM
9 – BRASS WIND INSTRUMENTS IN POPULAR MUSIC
10 – WELL KNOWN BRASS PLAYERS IN POPULAR MUSIC.
1. WIND BANDS
The best-known wind-orchestra strength is that of the Wind Band. It has woodwind as well as brass and percussion of course. During the years there have been several kinds of strengths: The English Brass and Reed band is almost a Brass band with only a few high woodwind players, the English Military Band is a relatively small Harmony of only about 25 members, the Dutch Fanfare Band exists of brass players with a flugelhorn at the top and a complete group of saxophone players, but without flutes and clarinets. In the south of Europe, you find some really big orchestras, as the Republic Garde in Paris: Garde Republicaine, a band with 80 musicians, and the Police orchestra in Rome: Banda del Carabinieri with 103 musicians. Here the strength exist, beside the standard strength, of alto horn, Bb- and Eb flugelhorn, tenor horn (baritone) cimbasso, string double bass, harp, piano and more.
Fig. 1 GARDE REPUBLICAINE BAND, PARIS, exists of 80 musicians. The band had many prominent brass players amongst their members. One of the classics in the repertoire of brass chamber music: Eugene Bozza’s “sonatine for brass quintet” was written in 1951 for the a quintet of this band.
Fig. 2 BANDA DEL CARABINIERI, ROME, exists of 95 musicians. At the right, you see a “Cimbasso”, an instrument that is seldom used in a wind orchestra.
The type of harmony orchestra that is most common is the American inspired Concert Band. The repertoire is versatile, with arrangements of classical music, jazz and entertainment music and pop music, and original compositions. There can be many different instruments, as double bass, harp, piano, and cello and more, which makes it possible to show big contrasts, from soft chamber music to big orchestral tutti. When you look at the score of a Concert Band, you will find the high parts in the woodwind section while most of the lower parts are in the brass section. The brass section exists of:
4 trumpets (in older times there were special parts for cornets, like 2 trumpet and 2 cornets)
2 tenor trombones and a bass trombone
A part for a euphonium – that can be double (there has been parts for baritone/tenor horn)
A part for the tuba, often written in octaves or divisi, to be played by 2 – 4 tuba players.
There has also been written a long range of original pieces for the Harmony Orchestra: Rimsky Korsakov (1844-1908), Gustav Holst (1874-1934) and Ralph Vaughan Williams (1857-1934), Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) and Percy Grainger (1882-1961). Recently Johan de Meij (1953- ), Holland, has written some prominent works, solo concerts and symphonies, with an instrumentation that is full of fantasy, and therewith widened the knowledge and the popularity of the Concert Band.
Fig. 3 RØDOVRE CONCERT BAND, Denmark
2. JOHN PHILIP SOUSA BAND HIS AND FAMOUS SOLOISTS
Fig. 23 SOUSA BAND
One of the most remarkable wind orchestras ever was the American John Philip Sousa’s (1854-1934) Band. Originally, he was a violinist but he became leader of a wind orchestra and a composer, especially of marches. He became known as the King of the Marches, and during his career, he wrote more than a 100, amongst them “The Stars and Stripes Forever” that became the American National March. He wrote 10 operas as well, but he is not known for that.
Fig. 6 HERBERT CLARKE (1867-1945) was known for his virtuous and expressive cornet playing. He was a composer, he wrote etudes and had been trumpet player in the New York Philharmonic and at the Metropolitan Opera, but he loved the cornet far more than the trumpet. In a letter from 31 January 1921 to a young man, who sought his advice to change to the trumpet instead of the cornet he wrote: “Replying to yours of the 19th just received, would not advise you to change from cornet to trumpet, as the latter instrument is only a foreign fad for the time present, and is only used properly in large orchestra of 60 or more, for dynamic effects, and was never intended as a solo instrument. I never heard a real soloist playing before the public on a trumpet. One cannot play a decant song even, properly, on it, and it has sprung up in the last few years like ”jazz” music, which is the nearest Hell, or the devil, in music”.
Fig. 7 ELDEN BENGE – was the young man. We do not know whether he took Clarke’s warning about jazz to heart, but he ignored the great man’s contempt for the trumpet. From 1928 to 1933, he was principal trumpet of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, and then accepted the same position with the Chicago Symphony. In Chicago, he began designing a new trumpet for his own use. By 1937, he was making trumpets at home and selling them. Two years later, he formed the Benge Company and continued to make and sell trumpets after he moved to California in 1953. He did little advertising; his trumpets sold through word of mouth among professionals about the quality of Benge horns made in Burbank. After Benge died in 1960, the Conn-Selmer company made Benge trumpets for a time, but production of most models dwindled, then ceased in 2005.
As mentioned in ROMANTICISM II Patrick Gilmore had 2 competing cornet-soloists. Also Sousa had 2 famous conet-soloists: Herbert Clarcke and:
Fig. 7 Hermann Bellstedt (1858 – 1926) who played in Sousas band 1904 – 1906. Later he conducted his own band and served as Professor of Wind Instruments at the Cincinnati Conservatory. Bellstedt composed for band, orchestra, piano, violin, and cornet. His most famous piece is the cornet solo NAPOLI – variations on the Neapolitan tune Funniculi-Funnicula.
Fig. 7 ARTHUR PRYOR (1870-1942) invented a technique that made it possible to play as virtuous on the slide-trombone, as on the valve-trombone. His technique was outstanding and besides, he made his compositions to be ”right” for the trombone – you can hear that in his most well know solo: Variations on the melody “The Blue Bells of Scotland”. Pryor became famous and a feteret musician. One timme, when the audience called: “Pryor-Pryor” , it was heard like ”fire-fire” and the concert was stopped by the lokal fire bigade. At a performance in Leipzig before an audience estimated at 25000, Pryor received a tremendous ovation. At the intermission, members of the Gewandhouse Symphony Orchestra came to stage to disassemble his trombone and inspect it, questioning how anyone could achieve technique on the trombone as Pryor’s without the benefit of some mechanical aid. Through 12 years, Pryor performed about 10,000 times, at least twice a day, all week trough, from the age of 22, until he became 35.
Fig. 8 SIMONE MANTIA (1873-1951) was born in Palermo, Italy, and began playing the alto horn at age 9. In 1890, the Mantia family immigrated to New York City where he soon began playing professionally in orchestras on trombone and in bands on both trombone and euphonium. In 1896 he joined John Philip Sousa’s Band as the euphonium soloist, and by 1900 had become known as the “best euphonium player in the world” when he toured Europe with the Band. On trombone he performed with many orchestras, in Metropolitan Opera Orchestra for 35 years. Here Mantia worked under the baton of the legendary conductor Arturo Toscanini. The trombone section complained that the parts for the Verdi-operas were so difficult that they could only be played on valve trombone (As they were actually meant for), but the argument was quickly settled when Toscanini asked the very able Mantia to demonstrate these parts on his slide trombone. Later, Mantia moved on to conduct his own ensemble, the Arcade Orchestra. Mantia recognized the need to expand the euphonium repertoire and arranged and composed many solo pieces.
3. THE GOLDMAN BAND
Just at Sousa’s time the Harmony Orchestra movement reached its top in USA with about 10.000 orchestras in 1890 – later a bit less. A later Faymos band was THE GOLDMAN BAND. It was established 1918 by Edwin Franko Goldman (1878-1956). His son Richard Franko Goldman conducted the band from 1956 – 1979. The Goldman Band gave the first complete performance of Percy Grainger’s LINCOLNSHIRE POSY 1937, Darius Milhauds Suite Francais 1945 and Arnold Schoenbergs Theme and Variations op.43 1946. Hector berlioz’s Grande symphonie funebre et triomphale was given its first performance in USA by the Goldmann Band 1947
Fig. THE GOLDMAN BAND – PHOTO 1939
4. MARCHING BAND INSTRUMENTS
A special kind of performance is seen today in the American High School and University wind bands. They play in colourfull uniforms and with a special choreografy at sport events. For this purpose some special ”marching” versions of the low brass instruments have been designed, to be hold as a trumpet, or to carry on the shoulder.
Fig. 8 MARCHING MELLOFON (alto horn), MARCHING FRENCH HORN (valdhorn,
Fig. 9 MARCHING EUPHONIUMS
fig. 10 MARCHING TUBAS
Fig.9 “MASSED BAND”. Really big wind orchestras can be seen when several orchestras play together. Here are several Russian military orchestras put together to form a gigantic harmony orchestra.
5. BRASS BANDS
Fig. 11 HINSDALE BRASS BAND, ENGLAND c. 1910
The Brass Band movement speeded through the 20th century. It is still the competition element that bears the Brass Band atmosphere, and from being a British phenomenon there now are competitions in other countries, as well as European and World competitions.
Fig. 10 THE INSTRUMENTS IN A BRASS BAND. Apart from two tenor trombones, a bass trombone and percussion, all other instruments are almost one big saxhorn family:
One soprano Eb-cornet
Nine Bb-cornets. Front row: one principal cornet, three solo cornets. Back row: one repiano cornet, two 2nd cornets, two 3rd cornets
One flugelhorn (B♭)
Three tenor horns (E♭; called alto horn in almost all other countries) – solo, 1st, 2nd
Two baritone horns (B♭) – 1st, 2nd
Two euphoniums (B♭)
Two E♭ basses, also known as E♭ tubas, notated in treble clef
Moreover, two BB♭ basses, also known as B♭ tubas, notated in treble clef
At first, the Brass Bands only played arrangements, but already from the beginning of the 20th century, pieces have been written to form an original Brass Band repertoire. At first it were the “Great” English composers , such as Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Gustav Holst (1874-1934) and Ralph Vaughan Williams (1857-1934) who wrote original pieces, that nowadays can be seen as “classics“. Since then, a load of pieces are written for the many competitions, music that is a real technical challenge, and difficult to play.
Traditionally Brass Bands played with a steady, quick and heavy vibrato, what some people would call “A Unique singing quality” – others would call it vulgar and without taste. In the score to the Overture for Brass Band “Henrik V”, the composer Vaughan Williams writes: The composer wishes that trumpets should be used instead of cornets and that ‘the vulgar sentimental vibrato that disfigures most brass band performances should be strictly avoided’. Today the vibrato is moderate and the way the players of modern Brass Bands perform is rather “normal”.
The use of vibrato in brass bands is a very discussed subject. Traditionally Brass Bands played with a steady, quick and heavy vibrato, what some people would call “A Unique singing quality” – others would call it vulgar and without taste. Conductor Sir Thomas Beecham (1879 – 1961) conducted symphony orchestras, but was disparaging of other ensembles: “Brass bands are all very well in their place – outdoors and several miles away.” In the score to the Overture for Brass Band “Henrik V”, the composer Vaughan Williams writes: The composer wishes that trumpets should be used instead of cornets and that ‘the vulgar sentimental vibrato that disfigures most brass band performances should be strictly avoided’. Today the vibrato is moderate and the way the players of modern Brass Bands perform is rather “normal”.
Fig. 10 ROBERT CHILDS. The British euphonium player, conductor and Director of Brass Band Studies at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama Robert Childs writes about vibrato in brass bands: In my opinion playing with vibrato in brass bands comes from the days when we used to play symphonic arrangements. Arrangers of the day gave the euphonium cello and bassoon parts, cornets often played violin or high wind parts, and various instruments in the band would play the vocal solos in the operatic arrangements. The brass band basically played more en the style of a chamber orchestra then a modern brass ensemble – this included vibrato. However during my time in the brass band movement I’ve noticed a change in attitudes to vibrato. The professional brass players (conservatoire trained) returning to the movement have an added colour in their sound field. These men have taught us there is more to tone colour than just playing with the same vibrato all the times.
Fig. 11 BLACK DIKE MILLS BAND with conductor Nicholas Childs (brother to Robert Childs) . Perhaps the most famous of the bands was formed 1855 in the village of Queensbury in Yorkshire. John Foster, an amateur French horn player in the early part of the century, established a cotton mill on a stretch of land known as “Black Dyke”. He organised a brass band with what little was left of a village band, and provided instruments, a practice room, and uniforms, known as the Black Dyke Mills Band. Foster could never have imagined that one day his band would be more famous than the textiles manufactured in his mill. The band has won many prizes and competitions over the years. In 2014, the band won the National Brass Band Championships of Great Britain for a record 23rd time, and the British Open Championship for another record 30th time. They have also won the European Championships a record thirteen times, most recently in 2015. Black Dyke Band has made over 350 recordings, including one of the first brass band recordings in 1904. Even not being military orchestras, the English Brass Bands always wear uniforms.
Fig. 12 BRASS BAND SOLISTS. The best-known Brass Band musicians are soloists. They started as members of the best Brass Bands and became fulltime virtuoso. As Brass Bands are so popular, their soloists have become idols. Above two cornetists, left: Roger Webster, right: Richard Marshall (principal cornet in Black Dyke Mills Band). Below two euphonium players, left: Steven Mead, right: David Childs. Brass Band musicians are in principle amateur musicians and perform officially without fee, but soloists as these four have professional jobs as well, especially as teachers, but also as musicians in other orchestras apart from Brass Bands.
6. POPULAR WIND BANDS AND BRASS BANDS
— Exist worldwide. They are often locally dressed in national or locally colorful costumes, but use (more or less) always international standard-instruments:
Fig. 4 TYROL
Fig. 5 CANADA
Fig. 6 AFRICA
Fig. 7 INDIA
Fig. 8 SCOTLAND
Fig. 9 Easter procession in SPAIN
Fig. 11 PHILIPPINES
Fig. 13 FRANCE
Fig. 14 JAPAN
Fig. 15 BRAZIL
Fig. 16 ITALY
Fig. 17 SERBIA
Fig. 18 And finally an anachronism: ALPINE HORNS DESIGNED LIKE “STANDARD” BRASS INSTRUMENTS.
The mountain village of Baade, Austria, hosted the annual FESTIVAL OF ALP HORNS. This ancient musical instrument is a symbol of the region – performed on during weddings, festivals, battles, funerals.
7. CHAMBER MUSIC / BRASS ENSEMBLES/MIXED ENSEMBLES
Before and after the change to the 20th century there have been written chamber music for different strengths accompanied with brass wind instruments. The Wald horn is a part of the wind quintet, and there are other well-known pieces like Stravinsky’s “History of a Soldier”, with trumpet and trombone, his Octet for wind players with two trumpets and two trombones, and The Sonata for trumpet, horn and trombone by Francis Poulenc (1899-1960).
The wind quintet is a standard combination af instruments consisting of 4 woodwind players and one brass player, namely: Flute, Obo, Clarinet, Fagot – AND HORN. A large number of original works have been written for wind quintet all the way from the 18th century to the present.
Fig. BERLIN PHILHARMONIC WIND QUINTET. Hornplayer is Fergus McWilliam.
The biggest break-through for brass chamber music came in the 1960ies, with the following ensembles: The New York Brass Quintet and The Philip Jones Brass Ensemble, England, and the brass ensembles got a big boom. The best-known strength for a brass ensemble is the brass quintet, with two trumpets, horn, trombone and tuba. Already from the start, the repertoire existed of:
1 – MUSIC FROM THE RENAISSANCE AND THE EARLY BAROQUE. The brass quintet does not sound like the music of Mozart or Brahms, and the old music sounded somewhat authentic. However, it is not, the full sound of the tuba is not like the sound of the old bass trombone or the lighter sound of the Serpent, but the repertoire was perfect and the effect tremendous. The brass quintet promoted in a way the playing of the old music – later even on original instruments like the zinc and the sagbutt.
2 – THE FEW ORIGINAL PIECES FROM ROMANTICISM. This repertoire played an important part in the acceptance of the brass ensemble as a chamber music ensemble.
3 – A RANGE OF ARRANGEMNETS OF CLASSICAL MUSIC, JAZZ and POPMUSIC – not just “chamber music” as it was known, but it became important in the establishment of brass ensembles.
4 – NEW ORIGINAL CHAMBER MUSIC. Like with the old music, the brass sound was something rather new, and free from traditions. So lots of new chamber music is written for brass ensembles. Some of the best known, and nowadays almost classic original brass quintets, are the Sonatine by the Frenchman Eugene Bozza (1805-1991) and the Quintet op.73 by the Englishman Malcolm Arnolds (1921-2006).
Fig. 19 “EARLY” BRASS QUINTET FROM FROM AROUND 1900. Walter Bowman Rogers, ( 1865- ) – was a key figure of the phonograph industry for three decades, first as a featured cornet player on records and then as a music director for companies, the two most important being the Victor Talking Machine Company and Brunswick. Here he is performing (no. 2 from right) with a brass quintet.
Fig. BRANDON HIGH SCHOOL BRASS QUINTET, OHIO, USA 1910
Fig. 19 BRASS QUINTET OF THE CHICAGO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA. Back row from left: bagerst Frank Crisafully – trombone, Arnold Jacobs – tuba, front row: Adolph Herseth – trumpet, Hugh Cowden – horn and Reinold Schilke (who later founded his instrument- and mouthpiece firm) – trumpet (der senere skabte sit instrument- og mundstykke firma). This ensemble was a pioneer for brass chamber music; they were playing from the beginning of the 1950ies, and had their jobs in the Chicago Symphony Orchestra as well.
Fig.19 THE NEW YORK BRASS QUINTET, established in 1954, played all kind of music, from Renaissance to Romanticism up to New Music, but all very seriously and with elegance. Far from the popular element that later became famous amongst brass ensembles. They helped to put the brass quintet in “the good chamber music environment”. The N.Y. B. Q. commissioned Vagn Holmboe’s Brass Quintet no. 1 and Malcolm Arnold’s Brass Quintet. This photo was taken by a reunion concert in 1986 at the Norfolk Chamber Music Festival.
Fig. 20 THE PHILIP JONES’ BRASS ENSEMBLE. From left to right: John Pigneguy, Michael Laird, David Purser, Raymond Premru, James Watson, John Fletcher, Roger Brenner, Denis Wick, Paul Archibald and Philip Jones. The ensemble was founded in 1951 by the trumpet player Philip Jones (1928-2000), at the far right on the picture. The ensemble started as a quartet, became a quintet, but had different strengths in between; especially the 10-man strength (picture) was very popular. The repertoire was a mixture of: Renaissance and Baroque, the few original pieces for brass chamber ensemble from Romanticism and New music and Popular music. A mixture of old sacral, cheerful and popular music. When the ensemble stopped, P. Jones felt the pressure from two sides: The ensembles that played the old music on original instruments like Zincs and Sagbutts, (Fig. 21), and from the ensembles that had their focus on the popular music, like “Canadian Brass” and “Mnozil Brass” (Fig. 22 & 23).
Fig. QUINTETTE DE CUIVRES “ARS NOVA” – PHOTO CA. 1970.
A French brass quintet founded 1964 by horn player George Barboteu (1924 – 2006). Other members are: Trumpet – Bernard Jeannoutot and Marcel Lagore, trombone – Camille Verdier, tuba – Elie Raynaud.
Fig. 23 EMPIRE BRASS, another full time brass quintet, founded in 1972 by the trumpet player ROLF SMEDEVIG, 1953-2015 (middle back). With a broad repertoire and playing at the highest level, Empire Brass got lots of success. The ensemble still exists after the death of R. Smedevig.
Fig. 24 THE BERLIN PHILHARMONIC BRASS, one of the longest standing ensembles to have emerged from the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, was founded in the 1950s and they bring the distinctive sound and tradition from their orchestra. From left to right: Tamás Velenczei, Gábor Tarkövi, Martin Kretzer, Guillaume Jehl, Georg Hilser, Sarah Wilis, Alexander von Puttkamer, Stefan Schultz, Thomas Leyendecker, Jesper Busk Sørensen, Olaf Ott, Christhard Gössling. They have a wide repertoire, with special arrangements for their strength, which is 12 musicians: five trumpets, one horn, five trombones and one tuba.
Fig. 35 GERMAN BRASS was founded in 1974. All members have other jobs as orchestral musician or teacher in different places in Germany. When they perform, they meet at the concert place, where they rehearse as well. German Brass exists: four trumpets, two horn, three trombones, tuba and percussion.
Fig. 22 CANADIAN BRASS, FOUNDED 1970: Ronald Romm and Fred Mills – trumpet, Graeme Page – horn, Eugene Watts – trombone and Charles Dallenbach tuba. The ensemble started as a chamber music group, but very soon, they found their own form with a repertoire that mostly exists of arrangements of all kind of music, from the Renaissance to Dixieland music and with funny introductions to the various numbers. As you can see on these various record covers, we have by far gone beyond the old music opinion of “chamber music”. The ensemble was one of the first where the musicians were 100% ensemble-musician. “Canadian Brass” is identical with the special brass instrument’s popular sound and they have performed and played all over the world with great success.
Fig. 23 MNOZIL BRASS was founded in 1993 and got an enormous success as a very special and unique entertaining Brass-ensemble. They took a step further than Canadian Brass and away from the “traditional” chamber music as such. They play everything by head and in every possible style with a bravura that has not seen anything like it. They are comedians as well as virtuosi when they with the trumpet player Thomas Gansh in the centre, have their performances speckled with crazy ideas and arrangements special written for them: three trumpets, three trombones and tuba.
Fig. AMERICAN BRASS QUINTET. From left to right: Kevin Cobb, Louis Hanzlik, Michael Powell, John D. Rojak, Eric Reed.
An ensemble with the completely opposite entrance to the repertoire than canadian Brass and Monzil Brass is the American Brass Quintet, established 1960. Committed to the promotion of original brass chamber music, both contemporary music and renaissance music written for the precursors of today’s brass instruments. They play with a bass trombone on the 5. part instead of the traditional tuba.
8. JAZZ and RYTHM
Fig. 24 HULL & ANOLD’S QUADRILLE BAND (ca. 1838-1888) . Organized in 1838 shortly after the Hull family settled near Constantine, the band became known throughout Michigan and Indiana as one of the premiere orchestras of its kind. Led by violinist and caller John Hull, the band included Daniel Arnold, clarinet; Oliver P. Arnold, cornet; and Morris I. Arnold, trombone.
The Jazz was founded in New Orleans in the beginning of the 20th century, where it sprouted from spirituals, marching music and dance music. The brass instruments were part of it just from the start, but the strengths were individual and not standardised, as an example: very often violins, valve trombones or tubas were involved.
Fig. 25 ROBINSONS BAND PLAYS EVERYTHING. This cartoon was on the cover of New Orleans newspaper “The Mascot” for 15 November, 1890. The African-American band is playing on trumpet, valve trombone, drums and clarinet. People, horses, and dogs are either horrified or knocked prostrate into the street by the music. A man is shouting: For god sake stop! The very earliest jazz must have seemed confusing and provocative!
Fig. 25 JAZZ FUNERAL PROCESSION WITH MARCHING JAZZ-BAND, AN OLD TRADITION GOING BACK TO c. 1900 . A typical jazz funeral begins with a slow march, from funeral home or church to the cemetery. Throughout the march, the band plays hymn tunes. A change in the tenor of the ceremony takes place, after the deceased is entombed and the music becomes more upbeat, often starting with a hymn played in a swinging fashion, then going into popular hot tunes.Those who follow the band just to enjoy the music are called the second line, and their style of dancing, in which they walk and sometimes twirl a parasol or handkerchief in the air, is called second lining.
Fig. 23 BODDY BOLDEN (1877-1931) AND HIS ORCHESTRA ca. 1903-1905. No. 2 from the left in the back row is Willie Cornish on valve trombone and to his right Boddy Bolden on cornet.
Little by little, the strength changed from a “Dixieland” – or “New Orleans Jazz orchestra” to three in the front row (trumpet, clarinet and trombone) and a rhythm group.
The Jazz had its own musical language from the start, but had its influence on the technical playing method on trumpet and trombone, and in all music styles.
Fig. 25 The Original Dixieland Jass Band Dixieland jazz band, PROMOTION POSTCARD 1918. 1918 From left: Drummer Tony Sbarbaro , trombonist Edwin “Daddy” Edwards, cornetist “Nick” LaRocca, clarinetist Larry Shields, and pianist Henry Ragas The group made the first jazz recordings in 1917, and claimed authorship, of many jazz standards, the most famous being “Tiger Rag”. In late 1917 the spelling of the band’s name was changed to Original Dixieland Jazz Band. ODJB billed itself as the “Creators of Jazz”. Band leader Nick LaRocca argued that ODJB deserved recognition as the first band to record jazz commercially and the first band to establish jazz as a musical idiom or genre.
Fig. 23 THE TRUMPET PLAYER LOUIS ARMSTRONG (1901-1971), in this picture as a member of the trumpet player King Oliver’s Orchestra (about 1922), front row, no. 2 from the left. Armstrong was a giant trumpet player and unique in the Jazz, and until the 1930ies he blew everyone away. At first, he played the cornet but later he changed to the trumpet.
Fig. 24 LOUIS ARMSTRONG and HIS “HOT FIVE”. After playing as “side man” in other orchestras, he recorded (1925 – 1926) some epoch changing records in his own name with his “HOT FIVE” and “HOT SEVEN”. The trombone player was KID ORY.
Fig. 25 KID ORY (1886-1973, American trombonist and composer who was perhaps the inventor of the role for the trombone in classic three-part contrapuntal New Orleans jazz improvisation. His is remembered as “tailgate” trombonist, one whose style of playing fills in, or supports, other band instruments. By 1911 he was leading one of the best-known bands in New Orleans. Among its members at various times were Sidney Bechet, King Oliver and Louis Armstrong.
Fig. 25 LOUIS ARMSTRONG AND HIS ALL STARS. After his performances as a soloist with various big orchestras, Armstrong renewed the New Orleans Jazz with his “All Stars” (1947). The trombone player was Jack Teagarden who gave the trombone a new standard role in the jazz, he played brilliant and with eminent skill, technical as well as musical.
Fig. 26 JACK TEAGARDEN AS A YOUNG MAN. He changed the importance of the trombone, from being a slow instrument to an instrument that could be played brilliant, technical as well as with musicality.
In the 1930ies, the Jazz orchestras became bigger. The big orchestras had three trumpets and three trombones at first; later in the 1940ies, they had four trumpets and four trombones, together with five saxophones and a rhythm section. In this swing time, the music got higher and higher for the brass players, especially for the 1st trumpet (in Big Bands the “leading trumpet”).
Fig. 26 DUKE ELLINGTON’S (1899-1974) ORCHESTRA 1947. This orchestra had a special style, “the jungle style”: a characteristic “speaking” solo part, a kind of wah-wah sound. You perform this with or without mute, and with your mouth like you would when pronouncing different vowels. This playing method was developed by the trumpet player Bubber Miley (1903-1932) together with the trombone player Joe “tricky” Sam Nanton (1904-1946) and later used amongst others by the trumpet player Cottie Williams (1908-1985). Ellington used this style throughout his whole career, writing directly for his musicians and their personal playing method. When playing in his “Cotton Club” in New York, this wah-wah sound made them like coming directly from Africa. Ellington usually used only three trombones, first later he got a bass trombone. When trombonist Lawerence Brown joined the Ellington band 1932 as lead player it became the first jazz band to have three trombones. The 3 players had each their own special personality: L. Brown had for the time a “modern” and lyrical style, Juan Tizol played on valve trombone (se fig. 37), and then Tricky Sam Nanton with his plunger style. Ellington got a bass trombonist in the band in 1961, Chock Conners.
Fig. 27 3 OF DUKE ELLINGTON’S “SIDE MEN”: BUBBER MILEY, TRICY SAM NANTON og COOTIE WILLIAMS
Fig. 28 COUNT BASIE (1927-1984) BAND (photo 1943) had the same development in the combination af instruments as the Ellington Band. From being a smaller group, it grew bigger into a standard big band size with 4 trumpets and until 1963 with 3 trombones, then with 4 trombones incl. a bass trombone, played by Bill Hughes.
Fig.28 TOMMY DORSEY (1905-1956) Even if there were very good trombone players in the 1930ies and 40ies, like for example Jack Teagarden, the Jazz-trombone was seen as a lyrical instrument and trombone payers found a niche in playing “ballad-like” or “sweet-trombone” playing in the higher register. Tommy Dorsey was the perfect performer in this style and he had a big influence on the general opinion of the trombone being a lyrical instrument, and he was an example to many trombone players. Tommy Dorsey was also the leader of his own Big Band, which was one of the most popular bands during this “Swing” time.
Fig. 29 DIZZY GILLESPIE (1917-1993), TRUMPET and J.J. JOHNSON (1924-2001), TROMBONE, became leading instrumentalists in the time of the Bob music, with an almost explosive but full controlled playing method. D. Gillespie had something special, the trumpet with the bell pointing upwards. The trombone was a bit slow in this Bob period, not being able to play as fast as the trumpet, but J.J. Johnson broke the “code”. He essentially proved convincingly that anything Gillespie could do on the trumpet could now also be matched on the trombone. Johnson is regarded as the true founder of the modern school of jazz trombone, developing astounding (for the time) speed and agility, and he became an example for all jazz trombonists.
The popularity of the jazz trombone got a boost when J.J. Johnson in 1954 formed a quintet with the trombonist Kai Winding and a prominent rhythm group.
KAI WINDING (1922-1983) earlier a member of the Benny Goodman and Stan Kenton bands. He participated in famous “Birth of Cool” sessions in 1949-1950 under Miles Davis leadership), appearing on four of the twelve tracks, while J.J. Johnson appeared on the other eight.
Fig. 27 MILES DAVIS (1926-1991) – had played with the “Bob-kings” Dizzy Gillespie and the sax player Charlie Parker, but he developed quite another style, the “Cool-jazz”, that had less but longer tones and a very lyrical sound. He developed this style throughout his whole career.
Fig. 28 With the STAN KENTON’S (1912-1979) ORCHESTRA the top is reached in size as well as in sound volume. The brass section has come to five trumpets, five trombones (with two bass trombones, with one of them playing the tuba as well), and between 1960-1963 also with four mellophoniums (alto horn shaped like a trumpet, with the bell pointing forward). Kenton’s wish was a band like a ”concert-orchestra”, almost like a parallel to Wagner’s big symphony orchestra instead of being a dance orchestra.
Fig. 29 Left: The Conn Mellophonium. Right: RAY STARLING – one of Stan Kenton’s mellophonium players with his characteristic instrument.
Fig. 30 Two famous LEAD TRUMPET PLAYERS, Maynard Ferguson (1928-2006), Stan Kenton’s orchestra, and Cat Anderson (1916-1981), Duke Ellington’s orchestra. In the Big Bands the music became higher and higher for the 1st trumpet player, the leading trumpet. So far, both Ferguson and Anderson culminated in extreme high playing. With the leading trumpet style, the Jazz contributed with a special playing technique and sound on the trumpet, which is not only heard in Big bands, but also in film and popular music
Fig.30 THE FIREBIRD-TRUMPET MADE ESPECIALLY TO MAYNARD FERGUSON, trumpet with a “Dizzy” bell, with valves as well as a trombonistic slide.
Fig. 31 GEORGE ROBERTS (1928-2014) was known as bass trombone player at Stan Kenton’s orchestra, where he played from 1950-1953. After that, he was a freelance-musician in Los Angeles, and there he created together with the arranger Nelson Riddle a special bass trombone style, based on his ideas of melodic playing on a bass trombone. G. Roberts made the world look different on his instrument, and brought focus on the bass trombone, not only in the Jazz, but also in film-, popular music and in the classical music. Stan Kenton was one of the first who used the bass trombone, but it became a real part of the Big band in the 60ies.
SPECIAL BRASS INSTRUMENTS IN JAZZ
The trumpet and the trombone are the dominating brass instruments of the Jazz, together with the members of the family: the flugelhorn and the bass trombone. Other brass instruments are not as often used.
Fig. 32 TWO VALVE TROMBONE PLAYERS. There are two special musicians on the valve trombone: JUAN TIZOL (1900-1984), best known as a member of the Duke Ellington’s Orchestra, although he never played solo or improvised, but he composed some of the well-known Ellington melodies: “Caravan” and “Perdido” and Ellington let him often play together with the saxophones. BOB BROOKMEYER (1929-2011) was the leader of an orchestra, he was a composer and the best-known jazz musician on valve trombone, he played for instance with the Gerry Mulligan Quartet.
Fig. 38 TROMBONIUM is a valve instrument with forward bell and a bore between trombone and baritone. It was designed by the King company in the 1930s for marching bands to give a trombone sound without an “unpractical”slide. It has been especially known from the J.J. Johnson and Kai Winding Quintet recordings.
Fig. 38 DON ELLIOT (1926-1984). Most of Kentons mellophone-players was trumpet players who actually preferred to play the trumpet. Don Elliot took one step further and established himself as a bob jazz-player on the mellophone – maybe the only one ever ? ( he also was a singer, a composer and played trumpet and vibraphone). Elliott commissioned the Conn company to create a mellophone with the bell pointing up for his live performances.
Fig. 39 2 SPECIAL BRASS INSTRUMENTS IN JAZZ: JOHN CLARCK (1944-), french horn RICH MATTESON (1929-1993) euphonium.
John Clark (1944-) is one of the few Jazz “horn players”. He wrote music books and taught at the State University of New York 2001-2008 – he is now on faculty at Manhattan School of Music.
Rich A. Matteson, (1929-1993) – American jazz artist, collegiate music educator, international jazz clinician, big band leader, and jazz composer/arranger. Euphonium was his primary instrument, although Matteson was proficient on several other low brass instruments, particularly tuba. Matteson was the only significant euphonium soloist in jazz. In 1986, the University of North Florida appointed Matteson the Kroger Distinguished Professor of American Music.
- 1990 — Inducted into the Jazz Educators Hall of Fame
- 1992 — Down Beat Lifetime Achievement Award
- 2000 — Inducted into the Jacksonville Jazz Festival Hall of Fame for his significant contributions to jazz as an educator and musician
Fig. 34 HOWARD JOHNSON AND DAVID BARGERON. The tuba often was the bass instrument in the New Orleans- music and later used by Gil Ewans, and it is often used as an extra instrument for bass trombone players in modern Big Bands. However, Bargeron and Johnson developed the tuba from being a bass instrument to a jazz solo instrument.
Howard Lewis Johnson (1941-) is an American jazz musician known mainly for his work on tuba and baritone saxophone, although he also plays the bass clarinet, trumpet and other reed instruments
David W. “Dave” Bargeron (1942-) is an American trombonist and tuba player most famous for playing with the jazz-rock group Blood, Sweat and Tears. He became famous for his jazz-rock solo on the tuba in “And When I Die/One room country shack”
Fig. WYNTON MARSALIS (1961) – is a jazz trumpeter, composer, teacher, music educator, and artistic director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. He is known as a jazz musician who plays modern jazz but he has also recreated the old jazz from the 1920s and 30’s. As a musician, Marsalis possesses a remarkable stylistic range. In addition to being a jazz musician, he has performed and recorded the classic trumpet concerts of Haydn and Hummel, arias for soprano and trumpet by G.F. Händel and band solos such as Carnival in Venice – and all done with the highest possible quality. Wynton Marsalis currently serves as director of the Julliard School of Music Jazz studies program.
Fig.34 JAMES MORRISON (1962- ), AUSTRALIA, is a multi-instrumental Australian jazz musician. Widely known for his trumpet playing, he has also perform, on bass trumpet, trombone, euphonium and tuba. Here he is seen with a “normal” trumpet and a bass trumpet. In addition, he was part in the developing of the SUPERBONE-TROMBONE (made by SCHAGERL, Austria) that (like the firebird-trumpet) both has valves and a slide.
9. BRASS WIND INSTRUMENTS IN POPULAR MUSIC
“Popular” music is widely used as a name for all kinds of music, like film music, musicals and much more, and almost always brass instruments are involved, with their most jazzy-ish and show-ish effects.
Fig. 42 “CARTOON” MUSIC. The sound tapes for cartoon films often show brass players who use special sound effects, and who play in a jazzy swinging style, like in the films “Tom and Jerry”, “Looney Tunes” and more, or like in the Disney film “Trombone-Trouble” from 1944 where Donald Duck himself playes the trombone. There has always been a special love for the tuba in cartoon music, like for example in “the Flintstones” (1960-1966) where there is an extreme amount of tuba, often playing solo or in long cadenzas, used as fabulous background music.!
10. WELL KNOWN BRASS PLAYERS IN POPULAR MUSIC
Most well known performers in popular music are singers, but it happens that an instrumentalist is the basis for the success. Brass players mostly are part of an ensemble or a band, but there are some brass players who have become famous themselves. Not because they were very tremendous instrumentalists, but maybe because of their playing method or special style that did the trick, in a short or longer period. Of course there are musicians who were both great players, as well as great performers with their special style, for example Louis Armstrong, who was the top in jazz music, but at the same time one of the most popular and well known musicians in the 20th century: at a concert in New Orleans in 1968 he was introduced as:”the most famous man in the world”.
Fig. 62 STATUES OF LOUIS ARMSTRONG – New Orleans Airport, Algier – New Orleans, Armstrong Park – New Orleans, National habor – Maryland, Las Vegas.
Fig. 42 GLEN MILLER (1904 – 1944) American trombone player and arranger who especially became famous as the leader of an orchestra. During the Swing Time, the Big Bands were either “hot” which means: jazz orientated, or “sweet” which means: focused on popular music. Miller did both, but by focusing on orchestral playing rather than jazz soloists he got his own special sound. Although he had worked as an arranger himself, most of his “hits” were written/arranged by others, and often with his special sound that came by letting a clarinet and a tenor saxophone play the melody in octaves. He was not especially famous as a jazz musician, but pieces like “In the Mood”, “Moonlight Serenade”, “Pennsylvania 6-5000″, “Chattanooga Choo Choo”, “A String of Pearls”, “American Patrol”, “Tuxedo Junction”, and “Little Brown Jug” made his orchestra the most popular Big Band of all. Between 1939 – 1943, Glen Miller was the musician whose records sold best – Of “Tuxedo Junction” itself 115000 records were sold in the first week it was released. There is a film about his life from 1954 “The Glenn Miller Story”. Although the popularity of the Big Bands lessened late 40ies, Glenn Miller never was a temporary success, and his music is still being played.
Fig.43 “EDDIE” CALVERT (1922 – 1978), ENGLISH TROMPETIST, LANCERED AS “THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN TRUMP”. He succeeded with a melodic repertoire game played with a big warm sound and a “Mexican” vibrato. His best-selling hits “worldwide” were: “Oh Mein Papa” and “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White”.
Fig. 44 CHRIS BARBER (1930 – ), ENGLISH TROMBONE PLAYER AND ORCHESTRAL LEADER came from the revival of New Orleans music that blossomed in England in the 50ies and 60ies. Although his fame became less by the upcoming of rock music and the Beatles, he continued his carrier. Never has a trombone player been so popular in such a long time.
Fig. 45 HERB ALBERT (1935 – ), AMERICAN TRUMPET PLAYER AND ORCHESTERLEADER, got known as the leader of “Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass”. His special style with a “cheap”, lazy and south-american inspired sound got an enormous impact with the numbers ” A Taste of Honey”, “Tijuana Taxi” and “This Guy’s in Love with You”. He sold more than 72 million records.
Under construction. Translation coming soon
Op til midten af 1900-tallet var der ikke så meget eksakt viden om embouchure, vejrtræknings-teknik m.m., der var mere en opfattelse af “talentet” kunne bære hvis det var tilstrækkeligt stort. Det var dog et “alment faktum” at den teknik der behøvedes for at kunne bestride en stilling som solo-trompet i et symfoniorkester kun holdt til man blev omkring 40 år. Maybe there was also another attitude towards teaching and passing on ideas to others. English trombone player Denis Wick (see PROMINENT TROMBONE PLAYERS in THE 20′ CENTURY I) was frustrated when he was a student at the royal Academy of Music, London. Sidney Langston was the professor, but he all but refused to pass on any of his experience in case his students ‘stole’ his work. Alt dette har siden ændret sig radikalt med en en udvikling af systemer (lidt ligesom som indenfor sportens verden), hvor man med træning kan udvikle sin fysiske teknik. Disse “ideer” bygger på forskning og erfaring, og det har betydet at færre professionelle messingblæsere “bryder sammen” og at man ved træning kan holde sin spille-standard højt op i årerne. Det mest ekstreme eksempel er den amerikanske trompetist Adolph Herset der fungerede som solotrompetist i Chicago Symfoniorkester indtil han fyldte 79 – længe efter en “normal” pensionsalder (se under trompet Det 20. århundrede I).
Fig. 49 CARMINE CARUSO (1904-1987)) og JAMES STAMP (1904-1985)
C. Caruso spillede som ung først klaver, så violin og til sidst saxofon. hans ideer om blæseteknik slog dog mest igennem hos messingblæsere og han blev for mange den helt store “Messingblæse-teknik-guru”.
J. Stamp var trompetist men gjorde især karriere med sin undervisning. Hans system for alle messingblæsere er beskrevet i hans bog: “Warm-ups + Studies” .
Fig. WALTER HOLY (1921 – 2006) – playing on his coiled “Reiche trumpet” with 3 holes made by Otto Steinkopf. Walter Holy was from Germany and the first trumpeter in the 20th century to play successfully on valveless Baroque trumpets. From 1960, as principal trumpet of the Cappella Coloniensis, he made recordings and demonstrated Baroque instruments in travels throughout the world. Holy plays very softly and in a more chamber-music spirit than Adolph Scherbaum at the same time (with a valve piccolo trumpet).
Fig. THE FIRST RECORDING OF THE BRANDENBURGER CONCERTO No. 2 ON HISTORRICALLY INSTRUMENTS – April 1964, Palais Schönburg.. Holy 4th from left.
Siden fra omkring 1960-erne er det blevet udbredt at opføre musik ”historisk”, dvs. med en rytmisk markant puls, næsten uden vibrato, med muligheden for improvisation og spillet på kopier af gamle instrumenter. I begyndelsen blev det nærmest anset som noget ”amatør-præget” men i dag er ”historiske opførelser” meget professionelle som det høres hos f.eks. orkesterne: London Barouque Soloists der også optræder som Orchestre Révolutionaire et Romantique (England), Freiburger Barockorchester (Tyskland), Det 18. århundredes Orkester (Holland) eller Il Giardino Harmonico (Italien). Først var det musik fra rennæssancen, siden barokmusik, så wienerklassik musik og endelig romantisk musik der blev spillet på instrumenter fra den tid hvor musikken blev skrevet. Ideen var i begyndelsen meget diskuteret, men ideen er i den grad slået an, så den også har påvirket den måde også ”almindelige orkestre” spiller gammel musik på. For at kunne imødekomme efterspørgslen findes der i dag en lang række instrument-firmaer der fremstiller ”historiske Instrumenter”. Nogle modeller er “gennemført” gamle, men de fleste inkorporerer dog senere tiders detaljer som f.eks. spytventil, forkromet basuntræk eller huller i trompeter for lettere at kunne spille vanskelige toner.
Fig. 52 3 MUSIKERE DER SPILLER “HARDCORE” PÅ HISTORISKE INSTRUMENTER: Franskmanden JEAN-FRANCOIS MADEUF, trompet – englænderen PIP EASTORP, horn – og englænderen ADAM WOOLF, sackbut. Alle 3 spiller grænseoverskridende virtuost på gennemført “gamle instrumenter”, f.eks. spiller Madeuf uden huller i sin trompet og med den gamle “trompeter-positur”.
Fig. 50 REKLAME FOR NATURHORN fra 1989. Hornet var designet af hornisten Anthony Halstead som selv er afbildedet på annoncen fra magasinet “Brass Bulletin”
Fig. 21 HIS MAJESTYS CORNETTS AND SACKBUTS. Siden 1970-erne har: Natur/barok-trompet, zinken, barok-horn og barokbasunen (sackbut ) fået en renæssance, og de optræder nu i mange orkestre og kammerensembler der har specialiseret sig i at spille den gamle musik på “gamle” instrumenter. Et af de førende blæse-ensembler er His Majestys Cornetts and Sackbuts der blev etableret af zink-spilleren Jeremy West (nr.2 fra højre) i 1982.
Fig. THALIA ENS., Amsterdam, perform wind quintet om period instruments. Natural horn: Hylke Rozema
Fig. 23 CHESTNUT BRASS, ETABLERET 1977: Bruce Barrie, John Thomas, Marian Hesse, Larry Zimmerman og Jay Krush. C.B.B. har fundet deres helt egen personlige niche som formidlere, ved at præsentere og faktisk optræde på næsten alle typer af messinginstrumenter med relevante stilarter og typer af repertoire. Photo Credit: Paul Nixdorf
Fig. 79 GAMLE VENTIL-INSTRUMENTER FRA 1800-TALLET BLIVER OGSÅ DYRKET I DAG.
Fig. THE PRINCE REGENT’s BAND: Richard Fomison, Richard Thomas, Anneke Scott, Phil Dale and Jeff miller – have recreated the sort of music that the Distin family played in their concerts, a compelling mixtures of styles and arrangements by the Distins and by members of the Prince Regent’s Band and performed on the old instruments.
“PRIMITIVE” MESSING- eller LÆBEBLÆSE-INSTRUMENTER
Ved siden af de “almindelige” messinginstrumenter har der hele tiden været spillet på nye udgaver af de helt gamle messinginstrumenter, eller rettere sagt læbeblæse-instrumenter, for mange af dem er slet ikke lavet af messing.
Fig. 51 “PRIMITIVE MESSINGINSTRUMENTER.Fra venstre øverst: ” Jazz basunisten Steve Turre spiller på konkylie. Et lur-lignende metal-instrument fra 1880, Indien. OVERTON”-læbeblæse-instrument af bambus, med huller, Indonesien. Ny fabrikeret “Rag-Dung trompet” fra Tibet.
Fig.52 ALPINE HORN ARE MADE IN ALL SIZES:
Fig.53 – Og der spilles stadig på jagthorn:
Fig.54 – AND ON NATURAL TRUMPET. A TRUMPETER WITH FLORENCE’s CITY SYMBOL has performed at the Calcio Storico Games since the days the city was an Italian economic power during the Renaissance:
Fig.55 – OR TRUMPETERS FROM “SBANDIERATORI DEI BORGHI E SESTIERI FLORENTINI” IN FLORENCE
Fig. 56 – AND AT THE HOUSEHOLD CAVALERY FANFARE TRUMPETERS, LONDON
Fig.56 – THE AFRICAN KAKAKI TRUMPET IS STILL USED
ASSOCIATIONS AND MAGAZINES FOR BRASS PLAYERS
FIG. 52 LOGOS FOR INTERNATIONAL BRASS SOCIETYS. In the 2nd part of the 20`th Century, four international associations were established for brass players: INTERNATIONAL TRUMPET GUILD, INTERNATIONAL HORN SOCIETY, INTERNATIONAL TROMBONE ASSOCIATION and TUBIST UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOODS ASSOCIATION to day is called INTERNATIONAL TUBA EUPHONIUM ASSOSIATION.
FIG. 53 FRONTPAGE TO 3 EDITIONS OF BRASS BULLETIN. During the period 1971-2003, the magazine Brass Bulletin published articles about brass instruments, brass players and events. The magazine was driven and edited by the Jean-Pierre Mathez, Switzerland.
Fig. THE HISTORIC BRASS SOCIETY (HBS) was founded in 1988. It is an international music organization whose goal is to promote the exchange of serious ideas about the history and performance of brass instruments and brass music, ranging from Antiquity through the twentieth century.
DET NATIONALE UDTRYK
Som det tidligere har været nævnt har der været nationale traditioner for en særlig spillemåde og klang. Indtil omkring 1950 var denne individualitet langt mere udpræget end i dag. På et tidspunkt begyndte alle orkestre at lyde mere og mere ens (se under USA) og det blev mere svært at høre om et orkester kom fra det ene eller det andet sted i verden. I dag prøver man i højere grad at gå tilbage og finde sin nationale identitet i klang og spillemåde.
TYSKLAND og ØSTRIG
Fig. 52 WIENER PHILHARMONIKERNES HORNGRUPPE MED WIENER-HORN OG WAGNERTUBAER under indspilningen af Rhinguldet 1960/1961 under ledelse af Georg Solti. 1.række fra venstre: Gottfried von Freiberg, Josef Veleba, Josef Koller, Otto Nitsch, Leopold Kainz, Wolfgang Tomböck sen., Josef Samwald – 2. række med wagner-tubaer: Roland Berger, Hans Berger, Emil Kreuziger, Josef Lackner.
(NOTE: The horns are seated in the so-called Wiener arrangement with the 1st hornist furthest away in the picture – this arrangement has now been abandoned)
I Tyskland og Østrig nåede messingspillet en foreløbig kulmination hos senromantikerne. Efter tidens forhold var klangen mørk, med f-horn og trompeter med drejeventiler, og baseret på sammenspil. Omkring år 1900 blev de tyske messingblæsere indiskutabelt regnet for at være de førende orkestermusikere. Da man på den tid stiftede en række orkestre i USA, måtte man i stor stil importere kvalificerede musikere, og som en tommelfingerregel hed det at man fik: “Strygere fra Rusland, træblæsere fra Frankrig og messingblæsere fra Tyskland”. Siden er klangen i Tyskland blevet noget lysere. I Berlinerfilharmonikerne og Wienerfilharmonikerne fastholder man den gamle klangtradition ved stadig at bruge de gamle instrumenter, eller kopier af dem.
Fig. 53 STEFAN SCHULTZ er basbasunist i Berliner Philharmonikerne siden 2002. I lang tid var solospil på basbasun mest en amerikansk foreteelse, men det har helt ændret sig med den opmærksomhed Stefan Schultz har fået som solist. Foto: Jarek Raczek.
Fig. 54 DEN FRANSKE TROMPETIST PIERRE THIBAUD 1929 – 2004, blev kendt som trompetsolist, 1. trompetist i Karl Richters orkester, indforskrevet 1.trompetist ved indspilninger af barokmusik med Berliner Pilharmonikerne og en meget søgt lærer, bl.a. ved Pariser konservatoriet.
Allerede i 1800-tallet var det instrumentale niveau højt i Frankrig, og allerede der stærkt centreret omkring den enkelte musikers solistiske udfoldelser. Derfor havde franske messinginstrumenter en lille boring, en lys klang, et ret intenst vibrato og trompeterne er altid med pumpeventiler. Da en af solo-trompetisterne i Pariseroperaens orkester engang i 1950-erne for første gang spillede på en medium-bore trompet, kom det sarkastisk fra hans sidemand: “Skal vi nu til at spille på flügelhorn ?”. Franske komponister som Claude Debussy (1862-1918) og Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) følte sig heller ikke spor tiltrukket af den fede og massive tyske messingklang, men var mere optaget af den præcise klangfarve fra hvert enkelt instrument.
Fig. 55 PARIS TROMBONEKVARTET I EN REKLAME FOR INSTRUMENTFABRIKKEN SELMER, 1959. Fra venstre: Gabriel Masson, Marcel Galiegue, André Gosset og René Allain. Læg mærke til at der stadig væk spilles uden basbasun, men med 4 tenorbasuner uden kvartventil. Gabriel Masson (1912-1975) var sin tids førende franske basunist, lærer på Pariser Konservatoriet og var med til en del indspilninger af solo og kammermusik – før 1960-erne var basun-indspilninger af den slags en sjældenhed.
Dublin Orchestral Society in the Royal University Concert Hall, c. 1900. Here are all the English specialties from this period: Trumpet parts played on Cornets, French Horns with piston valves and the english Bass Trombone in G with handle.
Engelsk spillestil og instrumentbygning var længe under fransk påvirkning, det kan høres tydeligt på gamle engelske indspilninger. I 1950-erne blev “amerikaniseringen” med fyldigere og mørkere klang konsekvent indført i England – især hos de dybe instrumenter. Det høres bl.a. i de mange film hvor musikken er indspillet af London Symphony Orchestra. Orkestrets mangeårige solobasunist Dennis Wick har formuleret det sådan: “Engleske messingblæsere har en tendens til at få en Europæisk klang på amerikanske instrumenter”.
De engelske Brass Bands er jo en hel institution for sig selv, men også de har undergået forandring, væk fra det “lyse franske vibratofulde” udtryk mod en fyldigere klang og en mere “almen” frasering .
Fig. 56 Øverst: SOLOSPILLERE I LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA MAURICE MURPHY, trompet, OG DENNIS WICK, basun, fotograferet i 1882 under en opførsel af Verdi’s Requiem med London Symphony Orchestra under ledelse af Claudio Abbado. Nederst: DERES NYESTE EFTERKOMMERE: PHILIP COBB ansat som 21-årig i 2009, og PETER MORE ansat 2014 som kun 18-årig – det yngste medlem af LSO nogensinde !
Fig. 57 VITALY BUJANOVSKY (1928 – 993) var en legendarisk solohornist i Leningrads Philharmoniske orkester under Mravinsky og professor på Leningrad Konservatoriet. I 1985 blev han udnævnt til æresmedlem af “The International Horn Society”.
De russiske messingblæsere viser tydeligt deres kulturelle påvirkning i deres spil. Fra Tyskland har de fået deres særdeles fyldige klang og fra Frankrig deres meget ekspressive vibrato – det sidste fik en overgang de russiske valdhorn til at lyde helt saxofonagtige !
Fig. 58 SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH NAKARIAKOV (1977- ) har videreført den russiske messingtradition med et helt specielt udtryksfuldt spil. Lige fra han var kun 15 år har han foretaget en lang række opsigtsvækkende indspilninger af originalværker og transskriptioner af f.eks. solokoncerter der originalt er for violin eller cello, ofte udført på flügelhorn.
Fig. 59 JOE ALESSI (1959- ), solobasunist i New York Philharmonic Orchestra, lærer på Julliard School of Music og optræder ofte som solist.
Amerikansk messingspil hviler mest på tysk tradition, men har en overgang så at sige overhalet Europa “indenom”. Med deres flotte. skinnende og slagkraftige spil har de påvirket alle de mange, som er faldet for de amerikanske messingblæseres klang, præcision og rene intonation. Det er også en ide fra USA at man som symfoniorkester-messingblæser dyrker den enkelte stemmes funktion 100% – dvs. ikke fokuserer så meget på at være solist, men igennem sin egen stemme at få sammenspillet i orkestrets messinggruppe til at fungere optimalt og dermed præge hele orkestrets fremtræden. Det kan man jo kun være positiv overfor, men i kampens hede forsvandt der en del af de nationale karakterer og en overgang virkede det som om alle orkestre begyndte at lyde ens. I dag arbejder man dog “world wide” på at bevare sin egenart uden at give køb på den tekniske kvalitet.
Fig. 60 CAROL JANTSCH (1985-) SOLOTUBAIST I PHIADELPHIA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA SIDEN 2006, – den første kvindelige tubaist I et førende amerikansk orkester og den yngste ansatte I sit orkester nogensinde.
Fig. 61 CHARLIE VERNON, BASBASUNIST I CHIGACO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA SIDEN 1986, efterfulgte Edward Kleinhammer og er nærmest et fænomen, der med sin teknik og musikalitet har præget opfattelsen af den moderne basbasun.
DE SKANDINAVISKE LANDE, HOLLAND OG BELGIEN
Fig. 62 Det hollandske Koncertgebouw orkesters BRASS ENSEMBLE dirigeret af deres tidligere solobasunist Ivan Meylemans.
Danmark, Sverige, Norge, Finland, Belgien og Holland er alle mindre lande som igennem tiderne har taget farve af påvirkninger fra både England, Frankrig, Tyskland, Rusland og i nyere tid især fra USA. Deres messingblæsere har dog formået at markere sig internationalt, både som orkestermusikere og som solister. F.eks. blev det hollandske KONCERTGEBOUW-ORKESTER i forbindelse med en vurdering i det engelske blad The Grammophone udnævnt til intet mindre end verdens bedste symfoniorkester. Et sådant udsagn er jo smags-baseret og kan selvfølgelig ikke tages helt alvorligt, men det siger alligevel noget om orkstrets standard at det kan blive udråbt som verdens nr.1!
Fig. 63 TROMPETISTEN HÅKAN HARDENBERGER (1951-), SVERIGE har skabt sig en solistkarriere som en virtous der både behersker det klassiske og helt nye repertoire, og han har fået skrevet værker til sig af en række prominente nulevende komponister. Hardenberger er blevet kaldt for: “the cleanest, subtlest trumpeter on earth”. H.H er også professor på Malmø Musikkonservatorium
KLANGFARVE OG SAMKLANG
Hvis man forestiller sig klangen fra et kor, hvor alle 4 stemmer klinger så godt sammen, at at den ene stemmer glider over i den anden, så kan man grafisk vise det med en KLANGPYRAMIDE:
Lidt ligesom begrebet fra renæssance-tiden med en instrument-familie kaldet for : CONSORT. Det samme kan siges om strygerne i et symfoniorkester:
Det samme gælder også alle ”saxhornene” eller instrumenterne i det britiske Brass Band (bortset fra basuner), dvs, flügelhorn, bariton og euphonium og basser (tubaer)
Hos træblæserene er nærmest det modsat, med forskellige klangfarver og næsten kaleidoskopiske kontraster, i renæssance-tiden kaldet for BROKEN CONSORT. En træblæserkvintet kunne se således ud:
– men ser vi på symfoniorkestrets ”gamle” messing-instrumenter placerer de sig imellem ”consort” og ”broken consort”.
En messingkvintet kunne se sådan ud:
Først og fremmest ser messinginstrumenterne meget forskellige ud: Sopran-instrumentet (trompeten) spiller med ventiler og fremadrettet klangstykke, alt-instrumentet (valdhornet) spiller med en hånd i det bagudvendte klangstykke, tenor-instrumentet (basunen) spiller med træk i stedet for ventiler, og tubaen spiller med klangstykket opad. Alligevel spiller de ret godt sammen, men alle 4 instrumenter har deres arketypiske karakter og nærmest symbolske betydning i behold.
I dag er symbolikken dog kun en del af deres klingende fremtoning, for i dag kan alle messing-instrumenter udtrykke næsten hvad som helst – også det direkte modsatte hvad man forventede af dem ud fra deres udspring.
Trompeten har været et signal-givende militaristisk herre-instrument, en budbringer:
The trumpet still symbolizes a messenger:
– men kan også fremstå som et meget folkeligt instrument:
Valdhornet har traditionelt været forbundet med jagt og natur:
– og i dag kan hornet ses og høres i helt nye sammenhænge som f.eks. her ved et ”jazz-horn-symposium”:
Basunen har været et dommedagsinstrument, en ophøjet røst fra det himmelske (eller fra underverdenen) og englenes foretrukne instrument:
– Men bl.a. med sine “glissandi” (glidetoner) optræder den i andre sammenhænge med et mere jordnært og direkte løssluppent udtryk som f.eks. her:
Som den sidst ankomne messinginstrument var tubaen først og fremmest et effektivt basinstrument, og uden de andre instrumenters symbolske betydning har tubaen kunnet opfattes som ”klovnen i cirkus”:
– eller som en ”klumpedumpe”:
Therefore there are many prejudices about “tubism”. Fortunately tubaister very self-deprecating.
Det tog lang tid før end der blev skrevet seriøs solomusik for tuba, men allerede Richard Wagner kunne bruge den til noget dramatisk som dragen Fafners røst:
– men i dag kan tubaen også udtrykke noget så langt fra sin oprindelse som f.eks. en ”alfe-agtig” lethed og elegance: