Mogens Andresen

THE 20th CENTURY (1900 – ) II


The best-known wind-orchestra strength is that of the Wind Band. It has woodwind as well as brass and percussion of course.  During the years there have been several kinds of strengths: The English Brass and Reed band is almost a Brass band with only a few high woodwind players, the English Military Band is a relatively small Harmony of only about 25 members, the Dutch Fanfare Band exists of brass players with a flugelhorn at the top and a complete group of saxophone players, but without flutes and clarinets. In the south of Europe, you find some really big orchestras, as the Republic Garde in Paris: Garde Republicaine, a band with 80 musicians, and the Police orchestra in Rome: Banda del Carabinieri with 103 musicians. Here the strength exist, beside the standard strength, of alto horn, Bb- and Eb flugelhorn, tenor horn (baritone) cimbasso, string double bass, harp, piano and more.



Fig. 1  GARDE REPUBLICAINE BAND, PARIS, exists of 80 musicians.  The band had many prominent brass players amongst their members. One of the classics in the repertoire of brass chamber music: Eugene Bozza’s “sonatine for brass quintet” was written in 1951 for the a quintet of this band.


Fig. 2   BANDA DEL CARABINIERI, ROME, exists of 95 musicians. At the right, you see a “Cimbasso”, an instrument that is seldom used in a wind orchestra.


The type of harmony orchestra that is most common is the American inspired Concert Band. The repertoire is versatile, with arrangements of classical music, jazz and entertainment music and pop music, and original compositions. There can be many different instruments, as double bass, harp, piano, and cello and more, which makes it possible to show big contrasts, from soft chamber music to big orchestral tutti. When you look at the score of a Concert Band, you will find the high parts in the woodwind section while most of the lower parts are in the brass section. The brass section exists of: 

4 trumpets (in older times there were special parts for cornets, like 2 trumpet and 2 cornets)

4 horns

2 tenor trombones and a bass trombone

A part for a euphonium – that can be double (there has been parts for baritone/tenor horn)

A part for the tuba, often written in octaves or divisi, to be played by 2 – 4 tuba players.

There has also been written a long range of original pieces for the Harmony Orchestra: Rimsky Korsakov (1844-1908), Gustav Holst (1874-1934) and Ralph Vaughan Williams (1857-1934), Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) and Percy Grainger (1882-1961). Recently Johan de Meij (1953- ), Holland, has written some prominent works, solo concerts and symphonies, with an instrumentation that is full of fantasy, and therewith widened the knowledge and the popularity of the Concert Band.









One of the most remarkable wind orchestras ever was the American John Philip Sousa’s (1854-1934) Band. Originally, he was a violinist but he became leader of a wind orchestra and a composer, especially of marches. He became known as the King of the Marches, and during his career, he wrote more than a 100, amongst them The Stars and Stripes Forever” that became the American National March. He wrote 10 operas as well, but he is not known for that. 



Fig.4   SOUSA ON A STAMP, 1940

He conducted the ’United States Marine Band’ – the band with the nickname ’the President’s Own’ in Washington 1880-1992, but after that he started his own band. He had a real crowd of star soloists and he himself was a good conductor (in the opinion of the tuba player William Bell Sousa was the best conductor he ever had). Sousa’s ambition was to create an orchestra that was as good as a symphony orchestra, and he succeeded, he got all his wishes fulfilled. His orchestra became world famous and he himself too. The Sousa Band was on various European tours and in 1910-1911, he toured all around the world.  When Sousa was in Berlin in 1900, R. Strauss was present at the rehearsals and the performance, and you can imagine that Strauss got many ideas from the splendid musicians. Under the 1st world war, Sousa was a real patriot as he volunteered at an age of 60, and he became the manager of the many music corpses in the marine. He asked though that his salary would not be more than 1 dollar a month. When Sousa stopped with his Band in 1931, he had played 15.623 concerts.

Fig. 5  JOHN PHILIP SOUSA and the SOUSAPHONE. J. P. Sousa’s name not only was the name of his orchestra, but also the name of an instrument, a special tuba that was named after him. In 1893 orchestra he conducted a Marine orchestra that had Helicons, but in his opinion the sound was too thin and direct, and he got build an instrument that had a bigger bell which was bend upwards, it got the  nickname: “the rain catcher”.  However, the sound went upwards as well, and disappeared. Therefore, Sousa had the bell bend forwards. From left to right: J.P. Sousa, the rain catcher and a “nymph” with a sousaphone. Under is shown a sousaphone side by side with 2 tubas, in the bass section of the Cedar Falls Band , Iowa USA  in 1902:

Part of Sousa’s succes were the prominent soloists who often played virtuous and incredable variations on simple but ear catching melodies.


Fig. 6  HERBERT CLARKE (1867-1945) was known for his virtuous and expressive cornet playing. He was a composer, he wrote etudes and had been trumpet player in the New York Philharmonic and at the Metropolitan Opera, but he loved the cornet far more than the trumpet. In a letter from 31 January 1921 to a young man, who sought his advice to change to the trumpet instead of the cornet he wrote: “Replying to yours of the 19th just received, would not advise you to change from cornet to trumpet, as the latter instrument is only a foreign fad for the time present, and is only used properly in large orchestra of 60 or more, for dynamic effects, and was never intended as a solo instrument. I never heard a real soloist playing before the public on a trumpet. One cannot play a decant song even, properly, on it, and it has sprung up in the last few years like ”jazz” music, which is the nearest Hell, or the devil, in music”.



Fig. 7   ELDEN BENGE – was the young man.  We do not know whether he took Clarkes warning about jazz to heart, but he ignored the great mans contempt for the trumpet. From 1928 to 1933, he was principal trumpet of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, and then accepted the same position with the Chicago Symphony. In Chicago, he began designing a new trumpet for his own use. By 1937, he was making trumpets at home and selling them. Two years later, he formed the Benge Company and continued to make and sell trumpets after he moved to California in 1953. He did little advertising; his trumpets sold through word of mouth among professionals about the quality of Benge horns made in Burbank. After Benge died in 1960, the Conn-Selmer company made Benge trumpets for a time, but production of most models dwindled, then ceased in 2005.


As mentioned in ROMANTICISM II Patrick Gilmore had 2 competing cornet-soloists. Also Sousa had 2 famous conet-soloists: Herbert Clarcke and:

Fig. 7  Hermann Bellstedt (1858 – 1926) who played in Sousas band 1904 – 1906. Later he conducted his own band and served as Professor of Wind Instruments at the Cincinnati Conservatory. Bellstedt composed for band, orchestra, piano, violin, and cornet. His most famous piece is the cornet solo NAPOLI – variations on the Neapolitan tune Funniculi-Funnicula.


Fig. 7  ARTHUR PRYOR (1870-1942)  invented a technique that made it possible to play as virtuous on the slide-trombone, as on the valve-trombone. His technique was outstanding and besides, he made his compositions to be ”right” for the trombone – you can hear that in his most well know solo: Variations on the melody  “The Blue Bells of Scotland”. Pryor became famous and a feteret musician. One timme, when the audience called: “Pryor-Pryor” , it was heard like ”fire-fire” and the concert was stopped by the lokal fire bigade. At a performance in Leipzig before an audience estimated at 25000, Pryor received a tremendous ovation. At the intermission, members of the Gewandhouse Symphony Orchestra came to stage to disassemble his trombone and inspect it, questioning how anyone could achieve technique on the trombone as Pryor’s without the benefit of some mechanical aid. Through 12 years, Pryor performed about 10,000 times, at least twice a day, all week trough, from the age of 22, until he became 35.


Fig. 8  SIMONE MANTIA (1873-1951) was born in Palermo, Italy, and began playing the alto horn at age 9. In 1890, the Mantia family immigrated to New York City where he soon began playing professionally in orchestras on trombone and in bands on both trombone and euphonium. In 1896 he joined John Philip Sousa’s Band as the euphonium soloist, and by 1900 had become known as the “best euphonium player in the world” when he toured Europe with the Band. On trombone he performed with many orchestras, in Metropolitan Opera Orchestra for 35 years. Here Mantia worked under the baton of the legendary conductor Arturo Toscanini. The trombone section complained that the parts for the Verdi-operas were so difficult that they could only be played on valve trombone (As they were actually meant for), but the argument was quickly settled when Toscanini asked the very able Mantia to demonstrate these parts on his slide trombone. Later, Mantia moved on to conduct his own ensemble, the Arcade Orchestra. Mantia recognized the need to expand the euphonium repertoire and arranged and composed many solo pieces.


Just at Sousa’s time the Harmony Orchestra movement reached its top in USA with about 10.000 orchestras in 1890 – later a bit less. A later Faymos band was THE GOLDMAN BAND. It was established 1918 by Edwin Franko Goldman (1878-1956). His son Richard Franko Goldman conducted the band from 1956 – 1979. The Goldman Band gave the first complete performance of Percy Grainger’s LINCOLNSHIRE POSY 1937, Darius Milhauds Suite Francais 1945 and Arnold Schoenbergs Theme and Variations op.43 1946. Hector berlioz’s Grande symphonie funebre et triomphale was given its first performance in USA by the Goldmann Band 1947




A special kind of performance is seen today in the American High School and University wind bands. They play in colourfull uniforms and with a special choreografy at sport events. For this purpose some special ”marching” versions of the low brass instruments have been designed, to be hold as a trumpet, or to carry on the shoulder.  

Fig. 8  MARCHING MELLOFON (alto horn), MARCHING FRENCH HORN (valdhorn,

mellophone2[1]Marching French Horn.2




Fig.9  “MASSED BAND”. Really big wind orchestras can be seen when several orchestras play together. Here are several Russian military orchestras put together to form a gigantic harmony orchestra.  




The Brass Band movement speeded through the 20th century. It is still the competition element that bears the Brass Band atmosphere, and from being a British phenomenon there now are competitions in other countries, as well as European and World competitions.


Fig. 10  THE INSTRUMENTS IN A BRASS BAND.  Apart from two tenor trombones, a bass trombone and percussion, all other instruments are almost one big saxhorn family:


One soprano Eb-cornet      


Nine  Bb-cornets.  Front row: one principal cornet, three solo cornets.  Back row: one repiano cornet, two 2nd cornets, two 3rd cornets



One flugelhorn (B)


Three tenor horns (E; called alto horn in almost all other countries) – solo, 1st, 2nd



Two baritone horns (B) – 1st, 2nd



Two euphoniums (B)


Two E basses, also known as E tubas, notated in treble clef

Moreover, two BB basses, also known as B tubas, notated in treble clef


At first, the Brass Bands only played arrangements, but already from the beginning of the 20th century, pieces have been written to form an original Brass Band repertoire. At first it were the “Great” English composers , such as Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Gustav Holst (1874-1934) and Ralph Vaughan Williams (1857-1934) who wrote original pieces, that nowadays can be  seen as “classics“. Since then, a load of pieces are written for the many competitions, music that is a real technical challenge, and difficult to play.  

Traditionally Brass Bands played with a steady, quick and heavy vibrato, what some people would call “A Unique singing quality” – others would call it vulgar and without taste. In the score to the Overture for Brass Band “Henrik V”, the composer Vaughan Williams writes: The composer wishes that trumpets should be used instead of cornets and that ‘the vulgar sentimental vibrato that disfigures most brass band performances should be strictly avoided’. Today the vibrato is moderate and the way the players of modern Brass Bands perform is rather “normal”.


The use of vibrato in brass bands is a very discussed subject. Traditionally Brass Bands played with a steady, quick and heavy vibrato, what some people would call “A Unique singing quality” – others would call it vulgar and without taste. Conductor Sir Thomas Beecham (1879 – 1961) conducted symphony orchestras, but was disparaging of other ensembles: “Brass bands are all very well in their place – outdoors and several miles away.” In the score to the Overture for Brass Band “Henrik V”, the composer Vaughan Williams writes: The composer wishes that trumpets should be used instead of cornets and that ‘the vulgar sentimental vibrato that disfigures most brass band performances should be strictly avoided’. Today the vibrato is moderate and the way the players of modern Brass Bands perform is rather “normal”.


Fig. 10 ROBERT CHILDS.  The British euphonium player, conductor and Director of Brass Band Studies at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama Robert Childs writes about vibrato in brass bands: In my opinion playing with vibrato in brass bands comes from the days when we used to play symphonic arrangements. Arrangers of the day gave the euphonium cello and bassoon parts, cornets often played violin or high wind parts, and various instruments in the band would play the vocal solos in the operatic arrangements. The brass band basically played more en the style of a chamber orchestra then a modern brass ensemble – this included vibrato. However during my time in the brass band movement I’ve noticed a change in attitudes to vibrato. The professional brass players (conservatoire trained) returning to the movement have an added colour in their sound field. These men have taught us there is more to tone colour than just playing with the same vibrato all the times.


Fig. 11  BLACK DIKE MILLS BAND with conductor Nicholas Childs (brother to Robert Childs) . Perhaps the most famous of the bands was formed 1855 in the village of Queensbury in Yorkshire. John Foster, an  amateur French horn player in the early part of the century, established a cotton mill on a stretch of land known as “Black Dyke”. He organised a brass band with what little was left of a village band, and provided instruments, a practice room, and uniforms, known as the Black Dyke Mills Band. Foster could never have imagined that one day his band would be more famous than the textiles manufactured in his mill. The band has won many prizes and competitions over the years. In 2014, the band won the National Brass Band Championships of Great Britain for a record 23rd time, and the British Open Championship for another record 30th time.  They have also won the European Championships a record thirteen times, most recently in 2015. Black Dyke Band has made over 350 recordings, including one of the first brass band recordings in 1904. Even not being military orchestras, the English Brass Bands always wear uniforms.



Fig. 12  BRASS BAND SOLISTS. The best-known Brass Band musicians are soloists. They started as members of the best Brass Bands and became fulltime virtuoso. As Brass Bands are so popular, their soloists have become idols. Above two cornetists, left: Roger Webster, right: Richard Marshall (principal cornet in Black Dyke Mills Band). Below two euphonium players, left: Steven Mead, right: David Childs. Brass Band musicians are in principle amateur musicians and perform officially without fee, but soloists as these four have professional jobs as well, especially as teachers, but also as musicians in other orchestras apart from Brass Bands.



— Exist worldwide. They are often locally dressed in national or locally colorful costumes, but use (more or less) always international standard-instruments:


Fig. 4 TYROL



Fig. 7  INDIA


Fig. 9  Easter procession in SPAIN






Fig. 13  FRANCE

Fig.  14  JAPAN

Fig. 15 BRAZIL

Fig. 16  ITALY

Fig.  17  SERBIA


The mountain village of Baade, Austria, hosted the annual FESTIVAL OF ALP HORNS. This ancient musical instrument is a symbol of the region – performed on during weddings, festivals, battles, funerals.



Before and after the change to the 20th century there have been written chamber music for different strengths accompanied with brass wind instruments. The Wald horn is a part of the wind quintet, and there are other well-known pieces like Stravinsky’s “History of a Soldier”, with trumpet and trombone, his Octet for wind players with two trumpets and two trombones, and The Sonata for trumpet, horn and trombone by Francis Poulenc (1899-1960).


The wind quintet is a standard combination af instruments consisting of 4 woodwind players and one brass player, namely: Flute, Obo, Clarinet, Fagot – AND HORN. A large number of original works have been written for wind quintet all the way from the 18th century to the present.

Fig.   BERLIN PHILHARMONIC WIND QUINTET. Hornplayer is Fergus McWilliam.


The biggest break-through for brass chamber music came in the 1960ies, with the following ensembles: The New York Brass Quintet and The Philip Jones Brass Ensemble, England, and the brass ensembles got a big boom. The best-known strength for a brass ensemble is the brass quintet, with two trumpets, horn, trombone and tuba. Already from the start, the repertoire existed of:

 1 – MUSIC FROM THE RENAISSANCE AND THE EARLY BAROQUE.   The brass quintet does not sound like the music of Mozart or Brahms, and the old music sounded somewhat authentic. However, it is not, the full sound of the tuba is not like the sound of the old bass trombone or the lighter sound of the Serpent, but the repertoire was perfect and the effect tremendous. The brass quintet promoted in a way the playing of the old music – later even on original instruments like the zinc and the sagbutt.

2 – THE FEW ORIGINAL PIECES FROM ROMANTICISM. This repertoire played an important part in the acceptance of the brass ensemble as a chamber music ensemble.

3 – A RANGE OF ARRANGEMNETS OF CLASSICAL MUSIC, JAZZ and POPMUSIC – not just “chamber music” as it was known, but it became important in the establishment of brass ensembles.  

4 – NEW ORIGINAL CHAMBER MUSIC. Like with the old music, the brass sound was something rather new, and free from traditions. So lots of new chamber music is written for brass ensembles. Some of the best known, and nowadays almost classic original brass quintets, are the Sonatine by the Frenchman Eugene Bozza (1805-1991) and the Quintet op.73 by the Englishman Malcolm Arnolds (1921-2006).




Fig. 19 “EARLY” BRASS QUINTET FROM FROM AROUND  1900. Walter Bowman Rogers, ( 1865- ) –  was a key figure of the phonograph industry for three decades, first as a featured cornet player on records and then as a music director for companies, the two most important being the Victor Talking Machine Company and Brunswick. Here he is performing  (no. 2 from right) with a brass quintet.


Fig. 19 BRASS QUINTET OF THE CHICAGO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA. Back row from left: bagerst Frank Crisafully – trombone, Arnold Jacobs – tuba, front row: Adolph Herseth – trumpet,  Hugh Cowden – horn and Reinold Schilke (who later founded his instrument- and mouthpiece firm) – trumpet (der senere skabte sit instrument- og mundstykke firma). This ensemble was a pioneer for brass chamber music; they were playing from the beginning of the 1950ies, and had their jobs in the Chicago Symphony Orchestra as well.


Fig.19   THE NEW YORK BRASS QUINTET, established in 1954, played all kind of music, from Renaissance to Romanticism up to New Music, but all very seriously and with elegance. Far from the popular element that later became famous amongst brass ensembles. They helped to put the brass quintet in “the good chamber music environment”. The N.Y. B. Q. commissioned Vagn Holmboe’s Brass Quintet no. 1 and Malcolm Arnold’s Brass Quintet. This photo was taken by a reunion concert in 1986 at the Norfolk Chamber Music Festival.


Fig. 20  THE PHILIP JONES’ BRASS ENSEMBLE. From left to right: John Pigneguy, Michael Laird, David Purser, Raymond Premru, James Watson, John Fletcher, Roger Brenner, Denis Wick, Paul Archibald and Philip Jones. The ensemble was founded in 1951 by the trumpet player Philip Jones (1928-2000), at the far right on the picture. The ensemble started as a quartet, became a quintet, but had different strengths in between; especially the 10-man strength (picture) was very popular. The repertoire was a mixture of: Renaissance and Baroque, the few original pieces for brass chamber ensemble from Romanticism and New music and Popular music. A mixture of old sacral, cheerful and popular music.   When the ensemble stopped, P. Jones felt the pressure from two sides: The ensembles that played the old music on original instruments like Zincs and Sagbutts, (Fig. 21), and from the ensembles that had their focus on the popular music, like “Canadian Brass” and “Mnozil Brass” (Fig. 22 & 23).


A French brass quintet founded 1964 by horn player George Barboteu (1924 – 2006). Other members are: Trumpet – Bernard Jeannoutot and Marcel Lagore, trombone – Camille Verdier, tuba – Elie Raynaud.


Fig. 23 EMPIRE BRASS, another full time brass quintet, founded in 1972 by the trumpet player ROLF SMEDEVIG, 1953-2015 (middle back).  With a broad repertoire and playing at the highest level, Empire Brass got lots of success. The ensemble still exists after the death of R. Smedevig.

Fig. 24 THE BERLIN PHILHARMONIC BRASS, one of the longest standing ensembles to have emerged from the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, was founded in the 1950s and they bring the distinctive sound and tradition from their orchestra. From left to right: Tamás Velenczei, Gábor Tarkövi, Martin Kretzer, Guillaume Jehl, Georg Hilser, Sarah Wilis, Alexander von Puttkamer, Stefan Schultz, Thomas Leyendecker, Jesper Busk Sørensen, Olaf Ott, Christhard Gössling. They have a wide repertoire, with special arrangements for their strength, which is 12 musicians: five trumpets, one horn, five trombones and one tuba.

Fig. 35 GERMAN BRASS was founded in 1974. All members have other jobs as orchestral musician or teacher in different places in Germany. When they perform, they meet at the concert place, where they rehearse as well. German Brass exists: four trumpets, two horn, three trombones, tuba and percussion.

Fig. 22 CANADIAN BRASS, FOUNDED 1970: Ronald Romm and  Fred Mills – trumpet, Graeme Page – horn, Eugene Watts – trombone and Charles Dallenbach tuba.  The ensemble started as a chamber music group, but very soon, they found their own form with a repertoire that mostly exists of arrangements of all kind of music, from the Renaissance to Dixieland music and with funny introductions to the various numbers. As you can see on these various record covers, we have by far gone beyond the old music opinion of “chamber music”. The ensemble was one of the first where the musicians were 100% ensemble-musician.  “Canadian Brass” is identical with the special brass instrument’s popular sound and they have performed and played all over the world with great success. 


 Fig. 23   MNOZIL BRASS was founded in 1993 and got an enormous success as a very special and unique entertaining Brass-ensemble. They took a step further than Canadian Brass and away from the “traditional” chamber music as such. They play everything by head and in every possible style with a bravura that has not seen anything like it. They are comedians as well as virtuosi when they with the trumpet player Thomas Gansh in the centre, have their performances speckled with crazy ideas and arrangements special written for them: three trumpets, three trombones and tuba.

Fig.  AMERICAN BRASS QUINTET. From left to right: Kevin Cobb, Louis Hanzlik, Michael Powell, John D. Rojak, Eric Reed.

An ensemble with the completely opposite entrance to the repertoire than canadian Brass and Monzil Brass is the American Brass Quintet, established 1960. Committed to the promotion of original brass chamber music, both contemporary music and renaissance music written for the precursors of today’s brass instruments. They play with a bass trombone on the 5. part instead of the traditional tuba.

Under construction. Translation coming soon 


Fig. 24   HULL & ANOLD’S QUADRILLE BAND (ca. 1838-1888) . Organized in 1838 shortly after the Hull family settled near Constantine, the band became known throughout Michigan and Indiana as one of the premiere orchestras of its kind. Led by violinist and caller John Hull, the band included Daniel Arnold, clarinet; Oliver P. Arnold, cornet; and Morris I. Arnold, trombone.

Jazzen blev skabt i New Orleans i begyndelsen af det 20. århundrede, hvor den voksede ud af “Spirituals” (gospelsange), marchmusik og dansemusik. Messinginstrumenterne var med helt fra starten, men besætningerne var meget individuelle og slet ikke spor standardiserede, f.eks. var det ikke ualmindeligt at have violin, ventilbasun eller tuba med.



Fig. 25  ROBINSONS BAND PLAYS EVERYTHING. This cartoon was on the cover of New Orleans newspaper “The Mascot” for 15 November, 1890. The African-American band is playing on trumpet, valve trombone, drums and clarinet. People, horses, and dogs are either horrified or knocked prostrate into the street by the music. A man is shouting: For god sake stop! The very earliest jazz must have seemed confusing and provocative!


Fig. 25  JAZZ FUNERAL PROCESSION WITH MARCHING JAZZ-BAND, AN OLD TRADITION GOING BACK TO c. 1900 .  A typical jazz funeral begins with a slow march, funeral home or church to the cemetery. Throughout the march, the band plays hymn tunes. A change in the tenor of the ceremony takes place, after either the deceased is entombed and the music becomes more upbeat, often starting with a hymn played in a swinging fashion, then going into popular hot tunes.Those who follow the band just to enjoy the music are called the second line, and their style of dancing, in which they walk and sometimes twirl a parasol or handkerchief in the air, is called second lining.



Fig. 23 BODDY BOLDEN (1877-1931) OG HANS ORKESTER ca. 1903-1905. Nr. 2 fra venstre bagerste række er Willie Cornish på ventilbasun og til højre for ham Boddy bolden selv på cornet.


Efterhånden udvikledes besætningen i “dixieland” – eller “New Orleans” jazzorkestrerne  sig til  3 “frontblæsere”, trompet, clarinet og basun, og en rytmegruppe. Jazzen havde fra starten af sit helt eget musikalske sprog, men kom efterhånden også til at påvirke hele den tekniske spillemåde på trompet og basun – og indenfor alle stilarter. 

Fig. 25   The Original Dixieland Jass Band Dixieland jazz band, PROMOTION POSTCARD 1918. 1918 From left: Drummer Tony Sbarbaro , trombonist Edwin “Daddy” Edwards, cornetist “Nick” LaRocca, clarinetist Larry Shields, and pianist Henry Ragas The group made the first jazz recordings in 1917, and claimed authorship, of many jazz standards, the most famous being “Tiger Rag”. In late 1917 the spelling of the band’s name was changed to Original Dixieland Jazz Band.  ODJB billed itself as the “Creators of Jazz”. Band leader Nick LaRocca argued that ODJB deserved recognition as the first band to record jazz commercially and the first band to establish jazz as a musical idiom or genre.


Fig. 23  TROMPETISTEN LOUIS ARMSTRONG (1901-1971), ses her som medlem af  trompetisten King Olivers orkester (ca.1922), forreste række nr. 2 fra venstre. Armstrong var en gigant og en ener i jazzen, der frem til 1930-erne overstrålede alt og alle. Han spillede først på cornet men skiftede senere til trompet. The trombone player is Honore Dutrey.


Fig. 24 LOUIS ARMSTRONG OG HANS “HOT FIVE”. Efter at have spillet som “side man” i andres orkestre lagde han i 1925 – 1926 navn til en række skelsættende indspilninger i eget navn med sine “HOT FIVE” og “HOT SEVEN”. Basunist var KID ORY.

Fig. 25 KID ORY  (1886-1973, American trombonist and composer who was perhaps the inventor of the role for the trombone in classic three-part contrapuntal New Orleans jazz improvisation. His is  remembered as “tailgate” trombonist, one whose style of playing fills in, or supports, other band instruments. By 1911 he was leading one of the best-known bands in New Orleans. Among its members at various times were Sidney Bechet, King Oliver and Louis Armstrong. 



Fig. 24  THE WOLVERINE ORCHESTRA – A BAND WITH SOUSAPHONE. The most famous member was cornet player BIX BEIDERBICKE  (1903-1931). He was one of the most influential jazz soloists of the 1920s and he had an unusual purity of tone and a gift for improvisation. He has been called a lyrical pendant to Louis Armstrong. The other brass players was Al Gande – trombone, and Min Leibrook – sousaphone.


Fig. 25 LOUIS ARMSTRONG AND HIS ALL STARS. Efter at have optrådt som solist med diverse store orkestre genskabte Armstrong New Orleans-jazzen  med sin “All Star besætning” (1947). Basunisten her var Jack Teagarden – he was later replaced by Trummy Young.



Fig. 26 JACK TEAGARDEN som ung – han satte helt nye standarder for jazz basunspil – virtuost og brilliant både teknisk og musikalsk.

I 30-erne begyndte jazz-orkestrene at vokse. De store orkestre havde  først til 3 trompeter og 3 basuner, og senere i 40-erne 4 trompeter og 4 basuner (sammen med 5 saxofoner og rytmegruppe). Der bliver skrevet højere og højere for messingblæserne i denne swingperiode, især for den allerøverste, 1.trompetstemmen, i Big Band sammenhæng kaldet for “leadtrompet-stemmen”.

Ellington 37

Fig. 26  DUKE ELLINGTONS (1899-1974) ORKESTER 1947. Dette orkester havde en særlig stil, “jungle-stilen”, der udmærker sig ved et karakteristisk “talende” solospil,  wa-wa-spil.  Det udføres med eller uden spidsdæmper, “plunger-dæmper” og med formning af munden som i udtalen af forskellige vokaler. Denne spillemåde blev udviklet af trompetisten Bubber Miley (1903-1932) sammen med basunisten Joe “tricy” Sam Nanton (1904-1946) og  videreført af bl.a. trompetisten  Cottie Williams (1908-1985). Spillestilen udnyttede Ellington i hele sin karriere, hvor han skrev direkte med henblik på hans musikeres personlige spil. I forbindelse med Ellingtons optræden i New Yorker klubben “Cotton Club” skabte wa-wa-spillet illusionen af at bandet kom “direkte” fra Afrika. Orkestret voksede til at have 4 trompeter men Ellington brugte altid kun 3 basuner. When trombonist Lawerence Brown joined the Ellington band 1932 as lead player it became the first jazz band to have three trombones. The 3 players had each their own special personality:  L. Brown had  for the time a “modern” and lyrical style, Juan Tizol played on valve trombone (se fig. 37), and then Tricky Sam Nanton with his plunger style. Ellington got a bass trombonist in the band in 1961, Chock Conners.



Fig. 28   COUNT BASIE (1927-1984) BAND (photo 1943) had the same development in the combination af instruments as the Ellington Band. From being a smaller group, it grew bigger into a standard big band size with 4 trumpets and until 1963 with 3 trombones, then with 4 trombones incl. a bass trombone, played by Bill Hughes.



Fig.  29   TOMMY DORSEY (1905-1956) Selvom der i 30-erne og 40-erne var dygtige basunister som f.eks. Jack Teagarden, blev basunen generelt opfattet som et “langsomt” instrument, og basunister fandt en niche i “ballade-spil” eller “sweetbasun-spil” i basunens højde-register. Dette blev forfinet til perfektion af Tommy Dorsey og hans spil påvirkede hele opfattelsen af basunen som et lyrisk instrument, og han blev en inspiration for mange basunister. Tommy Dorsey var også leder af sit eget Big Band der var et af swingtidens mest populære.

Fig. 30  DIZZY GILLESPIE (1917-1993), TROMPET og J.J. JOHNSSON (1924-2001), BASUN,  bliver med Bobmusikkens fremkomst banebrydende instrumentalister med et næsten eksplosivt spil under fuld kontrol. Et speciale ved D.Gillespies fremtræden var trompeten med det opadgående klangstykke. Ved bobben’s fremkomst haltede basunen ellers lidt “bagefter” i det “hurtige og vildere” spil, men J.J. Johnsson fik “knækket koden” og han blev fra da af et forbillede for alle jazz-basunister. He essentially proved convincingly that anything Gillespie could do on the trumpet could now also be matched on the trombone. Johnson is regarded as the true founder of the modern school of jazz trombone, developing astounding (for the time) speed and agility.

The popularity of the jazz trombone got a boost when J.J. Johnson in 1954 formed a quintet with the trombonist Kai Winding and a prominent rhythm group.

KAI WINDING  (1922-1983) earlier a member of the Benny Goodman and Stan Kenton bands. He participated in famous “Birth of Cool” sessions in 1949-1950 under Miles Davis leadership), appearing on four of the twelve tracks, while J.J. Johnson appeared on the other eight.


Fig. 31   MILES DAVIS (1926-1991) – havde godt nok spillet med bl.a. “Bob-kongerne” Dizzy Gillespie og saxofonisten Charlie Parker, men udviklede en helt anden stil, “Cool-jazzen”, der havde mindre men lange toner og et meget mere lyrisk udtryk. Han videre-udviklede dog sin spillestil igennem hele sin karriere. 

STAN KENTON mellofoner 1960 - 1963

Fig. 32   Med STAN KENTONS (1912-1979) ORKESTER  nås en foreløbig kulmination med hensyn til størrelse og lydstyrke. Her er messing besætningen nået op på 5 trompeter, 5 basuner (med 2 basbasuner hvoraf den ene også spiller tuba) og mellem 1960-1963 også 4 mellofoner – althorn i trompetfacon med fremadrettet klangstykke. Kenton ønskede sig at hans band fremstod som et “koncert-orkester”, som et slags “big bandets parallel til  Richard Wagners store symfoniorkester” i stedet for at blive opfattet som et danseorkester. 



Fig. 46    THE CONN 16E MELLOPHONE used in the Stan Kenton Orchestra, og RAY STARLING – en af Stan Kentons mellofon-spillere med sit karakteristiske instrument 



Fig. 34  2  BERØMTE LEADTROMPETISTER  Maynard Ferguson (1928-2006), Stan Kentons orkester, og Cat Andersson (1916-1981), Duke Ellingtons orkester. I Big Bands skrev man stadig højere og højere for 1. trompet-stemmen, “Lead Trompet stemmen”.  En foreløbig kulmination blev nået med Ferguson og Andersson der satte helt nye grænser for ekstremt højdespil. Med leadtrompet-spillet har jazzen bidraget med en helt særlig spille-teknik og udtryksmåde på trompet, der ikke kun høres i bigbands men også i film- og underholdningsmusik. 

Fig. 35  FIREBIRD-TROMPETEN  LAVET SPECIELT TIL MAYNARD FERGUSON, – en trompet med “Dizzy-klangstykke” og med både ventiler og et basunlignende træk.


Fig. 36  GEORGE ROBERTS (1928-2014) blev kendt som basbasunist hos Stan Kenton, hvor han var 1950-1953. Derefter var han freelance-musiker i Los Angeles hvor han med sine ideer om melodisk spil på basbasunen fik skabt en særlig basbasun-stil sammen med arrangøren Nelson riddle. G. Roberts fik i den grad skabt fokus på sit instrument, ikke bare inden for jazzen, men også indenfor film- og underholdningsmusik og – så at sige ad bagdøren – også indenfor klassisk musik. Kenton var en af de første der brugte basbasunen, men faktisk var det først i 60-erne at basbasunen blev en mere fast del af besætningen i et Big Band.


Af messinginstrumenter i jazzen er det helt klart trompeten og basunen der dominerer, sammen med deres familie medlemmer flügelhornet og basbasunen. Andre messinginstrumenter har optrådt mere sjældent.

fig. 37   2 VENTILBASUNISTER. På ventilbasun er det særlig 2 musikere der har markeret sig. JUAN TIZOL (1900-1984) er mest kendt som medlem af duke Ellingtons orkester, her spillede han aldrig improviserende soloer men han komponerede nogle af de kendte ellington-numre, “Caravan” og “Perdido” og blev af Ellington bl. a. brugt sammen med sax-gruppen. BOB BROOKMEYER  (1929-2011) har været både orkesterleder, komponist og den meste kendte jazzmusiker på ventilbasun, bl.a. har han spillet med i Gerry Mulligans kvartet.

Fig. 38  TROMBONIUM is a valve instrument with forward bell and a bore between trombone and baritone. It was designed by the King company in the 1930s for marching bands to give a trombone sound without an “unpractical”slide. It has been especially known from the J.J. Johnson and Kai Winding Quintet recordings.


Fig.  38   DON ELLIOT (1926-1984). Most of Kentons mellophone-players was trumpet players who actually preferred to play the trumpet. Don Elliot took one step further and established himself as a bob jazz-player on the mellophone – maybe the only one ever ? ( he also was a singer, a composer and played trumpet and vibraphone). Elliott commissioned the Conn company to create a mellophone with the bell pointing up for his live performances.

Fig. 39   2  SPECIELLE  MESSINGINSTRUMENTER I JAZZEN: RICH MATTESON (1929-1993), euphonium og JOHN CLARCK (1944-), valdhorn, – er nogle af de sjældne jazzmusikere på disse instrumenter. 

John Clark (1944-), USA,  er en af de få aktive “jazz-valdhornister”. Han har skrevet lærerbøger og taught at the State University of New York 2001-2008, og er nu ansat på Manhattan School of Music.

Rich A. Matteson, (1929-1993), USA, er jazz-musiker, underviser, Big band leder, komponist og arrangør. Hans primære instrument er euphonium og han er den eneste markante jazz musiker på dette instrument – men han han spiller også andre dybe messinginstrumenter,1986 blev han ansat på the University of North Florida og senere udnævnt til “Distinguished Professor of American Music”.


  • 1990 — Indlemmet i “the Jazz Educators Hall of Fame”
  • 1992 — Down Beat Lifetime Achievement Award
  • 2000 — Indlemmet i “the Jacksonville Jazz Festival Hall of Fame” for “his significant contributions to jazz as an educator and musician”.


Fig. 34   DAVID BARGERON og HOWARD JOHNSON. Tubaen var tit bas-instrument i New Orleans- musikken og senere været brugt af f.eks. Gil Ewans, og den optræder ofte som ekstra-instrument for basbasunister i moderne BigBands. Men Bargegon og Johnson har været med til at videre-udvikle tubaen som jazz-solo instrument.

Howard Lewis Johnson (1941-), USA,  er kendt som både barytonsaxofonist og som tuba-spiller, men spiller også andre instrumenter.

David W. “Dave” Bargeron (1942-), USA, er basunist og tubaist og især kendt som medlem af  jazz-rock gruppen Blood, Sweat and Tears. Her blev han nærmest berømt for sin kunky solo i “And When I Die/One room country shack” 

Fig.  WYNTON MARSALIS (1961) – is a jazz trumpeter, composer, teacher, music educator, and artistic director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. He is known as a jazz musician who plays modern jazz but he has also recreated the old jazz from the 1920s and 30’s. As a musician, Marsalis possesses a remarkable stylistic range. In addition to being a jazz musician, he has performed and recorded the classic trumpet concerts of Haydn and Hummel, arias for soprano and trumpet by G.F. Händel and band solos such as Carnival in Venice – and all done with the highest possible quality. Wynton Marsalis currently serves as director of the Julliard School of Music Jazz studies program.

Fig. 34 JAMES MORRISON (1962- ), AUSTRALIEN er en fænomenal jazz-musiker og et sjældent multi-instrumental-fænomen. Udover at beherske en række andre instrumenter skifter han helt problemfrit mellem forskellige messinginstrumenter. Her ses han med almindelig trompet og bastrompet. Han har også lagt navn til SUPERBONE-BASUNEN (lavet af SCHAGERL, Østrig) der (ligesom firebyrd-trompeten) har både ventiler og træk:





Populærmusik er et meget vidt begreb der dækker over mange forskellige genrer, f.eks. filmmusik, musical m.m. og i næsten alle forbindelser er der messinginstrumenter med – oftest  i front med deres mest jazzede og show-agtige udtryksmåder.

Fig. 42 TEGNEFILMS-MUSIK. I lydsporet til tegnefilm høres tit messingblæsere der udfolder sig i lyd-effekter og i musik spillet i en en en jazzet swing-stil, som f.eks i “Tom og Jerry”, “Looney Tunes” m.m.  – eller som her i Disney tegnefilmen “Trombone-Trouble” fra 1944 hvor Anders And selv spiller basun. I tegnefilms-musik har der altid været en særlig forkærlighed for bruge tubaen, f.eks. i “The Flintstones”  (1960 – 1966)  hvor der nærmest høres ekstremt meget tuba –  ofte helt solo i lange cadenza-agtige passager, anvendt som en fabulerende baggrundsmusik.


De fleste kendte udøvende idenfor populærmusikken er sangere, men det sker også at det er instrumentalister der lægger navn til  en succes. Messingblæsere optræder i den forbindelse oftest som en del af et ensemble eller en gruppe, men der findes også messingblæsere der selv har lagt navn til en bemærkelsesværdig popularitet. De har ikke nødvendigvis været specielt dygtige instrumentalister, men de har ramt, eller skabt, en særlig spillemåde eller stil der slår an – i kortere eller længere tid. Der findes naturligvis musikere der dækker alle aspekter, og igen kunne man nævne Louis Armstrong der både står som en ener i jazzen, og samtidig som en af 1900-tallets mest populære og kendte musikere – ved en koncert i New Orleans i 1968  blev han introduceret som: “The most famous man in the world.”.

Fig. 62 STATUES OF LOUIS ARMSTRONG – New Orleans Airport, Algier – New Orleans, Armstrong Park – New Orleans, National habor – Maryland, Las Vegas.

Fig. 42  GLEN MILLER (1904 – 1944) amerikansk basunist og arrangør der (især) fik succes som orkesterleder. Swingtidens Big Bands var enten jazz-orienterede og spillede ”hot” eller mere underholdnings-agtige og spillede ”sweet”. Miller gjorde begge dele men fik sit helt eget udtryk gennem et fokus på selve orkesterspillet, og mindre på personlige jazz-solister. Selv om han tidligere selv havde arbejdet som arrangør, blev de fleste af hans ”hits” skrevet/arr. af andre, og ofte med hans specielle sound der bl.a. kom fra at lade en klarinet og tenorsaxofon spille melodien i oktaver. Han blev ikke vurderet højt som jazz-musiker, men stykker som “In the Mood”, “Moonlight Serenade”, Pennsylvania 6-5000″, Chattanooga Choo Choo”, “A String of Pearls”, American Patrol”, “Tuxedo Junction”, og “Little Brown Jug” gjorde hans orkester til det aller mest populære af alle Big Bands. Mellem 1939 – 1943 var Glen Miller den bedst sælgende indspillende musiker – alene “Tuxedo Junction” solgte 115000 plader den første uge efter den udkom. Hans liv blev senere fortalt i spillefilmen “The Glen Miller Story” fra 1954. Selv om Big Band genrens popularitet faldt i slutningen af 1940-erne, blev G. Miller aldrig bare en “døgnflue” og hans musik bliver stadig spillet.

Fig. 43 “EDDIE” CALVERT (1922 – 1978) , ENGELSK TROMPETIST, LANCERET SOM “THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN TRUMPET”. Han fik succes med et melodisk repertoire spillet ”lige ud af landevejen” med en stor varm klang og et “mexicansk” vibrato. Hans storsælgende hits “worldwide” var: “Oh Mein Papa” and  Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White”. 

Fig. 44 CHRIS BARBER (1930 – ), ENGELSK BASUNIST OG ORKESTERLEDER, red på den ”revival-bølge” af New Orleans-musik der blomstrede op i England i 1950-erne og 1960-erne. Selv om berømmelsen faldt igennem de efterfølgende perioder hvor det f.eks. var the Beatles og rockmusik der dominerede plade-markedet, fortsatte han sin karriere. Aldrig har en basunist været så populær i så lang tid.

Fig. 45 HERB ALBERT (1935 – ), AMERIKANSK TROMPETIST OG ORKESTERLEDER, – blev kendt som leder af “Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass”. Hans specielle stil med et poppet, dovent og sydamerikansk-inspireret udtryk fik en enorm gennemslagskraft med f.eks. numrene, A Taste of Honey”, “Tijuana Taxi” og “This Guy’s in Love with You”. Han solgte over 72 millioner plader.







Op til midten af 1900-tallet var der ikke så meget eksakt viden om embouchure, vejrtræknings-teknik m.m., der var mere en opfattelse af “talentet” kunne bære hvis det var tilstrækkeligt stort.  Det var dog et “alment faktum” at den teknik der behøvedes for at kunne bestride en stilling som solo-trompet i et symfoniorkester kun holdt til man blev omkring 40 år. Maybe there was also another attitude towards teaching and passing on ideas to others. English trombone player Denis Wick (see PROMINENT TROMBONE PLAYERS in THE 20′ CENTURY I) was frustrated when he was a student at the royal Academy of Music, London. Sidney Langston was the professor, but he all but refused to pass on any of his experience in case his students ‘stole’ his work.  Alt dette har siden ændret sig radikalt med en en udvikling af systemer (lidt ligesom som indenfor sportens verden), hvor man med træning kan udvikle sin fysiske teknik. Disse “ideer” bygger på forskning og erfaring, og det har betydet at færre professionelle messingblæsere “bryder sammen” og at man ved træning kan holde sin spille-standard højt op i årerne. Det mest ekstreme eksempel er den amerikanske trompetist Adolph Herset der fungerede som solotrompetist i Chicago Symfoniorkester indtil han fyldte 79 – længe efter en “normal” pensionsalder (se under trompet Det 20. århundrede I).

Fig. 49  CARMINE CARUSO (1904-1987)) og JAMES STAMP (1904-1985)

C. Caruso spillede som ung først klaver, så violin og til sidst saxofon. hans ideer om blæseteknik slog dog mest igennem hos messingblæsere og han blev for mange den helt store “Messingblæse-teknik-guru”.

J. Stamp var trompetist men gjorde især karriere med sin undervisning.  Hans system for alle messingblæsere er beskrevet i hans bog: “Warm-ups + Studies” . 


Fig.  WALTER HOLY (1921 – 2006) – playing on his coiled “Reiche trumpet” with 3 holes made by Otto Steinkopf. Walter Holy was from Germany and the first trumpeter in the 20th century to play successfully on valveless Baroque trumpets. From 1960, as principal trumpet of the Cappella Coloniensis, he made recordings and demonstrated Baroque instruments in travels throughout the world. Holy plays very softly and in a more chamber-music spirit than Adolph Scherbaum at the same time (with a valve piccolo trumpet).



Siden fra omkring 1960-erne er det blevet udbredt at opføre musik ”historisk”, dvs. med en rytmisk markant puls, næsten uden vibrato, med muligheden for improvisation og spillet på kopier af gamle instrumenter. I begyndelsen blev det nærmest anset som noget  ”amatør-præget” men i dag er ”historiske opførelser” meget professionelle som det høres hos f.eks. orkesterne: London Barouque Soloists der også optræder som Orchestre Révolutionaire et Romantique (England), Freiburger Barockorchester (Tyskland), Det 18. århundredes Orkester (Holland) eller Il Giardino Harmonico (Italien). Først var det musik fra rennæssancen, siden barokmusik, så wienerklassik musik og endelig romantisk musik der blev spillet på instrumenter fra den tid hvor musikken blev skrevet. Ideen var i begyndelsen meget diskuteret, men ideen er i den grad slået an, så den også har påvirket den måde også  ”almindelige orkestre” spiller gammel musik på. For at kunne imødekomme efterspørgslen findes der i dag en lang række instrument-firmaer der fremstiller ”historiske Instrumenter”. Nogle modeller er “gennemført” gamle, men de fleste inkorporerer dog senere tiders detaljer som f.eks. spytventil, forkromet basuntræk eller huller i trompeter for lettere at kunne spille vanskelige toner.

Fig. 52    3  MUSIKERE DER SPILLER “HARDCORE” PÅ HISTORISKE INSTRUMENTER:  Franskmanden JEAN-FRANCOIS MADEUF, trompet – englænderen PIP EASTORP, horn – og englænderen ADAM WOOLF, sackbut. Alle 3 spiller grænseoverskridende virtuost på gennemført “gamle instrumenter”, f.eks. spiller Madeuf uden huller i sin trompet og med den gamle “trompeter-positur”.

Fig. 50  REKLAME FOR NATURHORN fra 1989. Hornet var designet af hornisten Anthony Halstead som selv er afbildedet på annoncen fra magasinet “Brass Bulletin” 


Fig. 21  HIS MAJESTYS CORNETTS AND SACKBUTS. Siden 1970-erne har: Natur/barok-trompet, zinken, barok-horn og barokbasunen (sackbut ) fået en renæssance, og de optræder nu i mange orkestre og kammerensembler der har specialiseret sig i at spille den gamle musik  på “gamle” instrumenter. Et af de førende blæse-ensembler er His Majestys Cornetts and Sackbuts der blev etableret af zink-spilleren Jeremy West (nr.2 fra højre) i 1982.

Fig.  THALIA ENS., Amsterdam, perform wind quintet om period instruments. Natural horn: Hylke Rozema 

Fig. 23 CHESTNUT BRASS, ETABLERET 1977:  Bruce Barrie, John Thomas, Marian Hesse, Larry Zimmerman og Jay Krush.  C.B.B. har fundet deres helt egen personlige niche som formidlere, ved at præsentere og faktisk optræde på næsten alle typer af messinginstrumenter med relevante stilarter og typer af repertoire. Photo Credit: Paul Nixdorf




Fig. THE PRINCE REGENT’s BAND: Richard Fomison, Richard Thomas, Anneke Scott, Phil Dale and Jeff miller –  have recreated the sort of music that the Distin family played in their concerts, a compelling mixtures of styles and arrangements by the Distins and by members of the Prince Regent’s Band and performed on the old instruments. 


Ved siden af de “almindelige” messinginstrumenter har der hele tiden været spillet på nye udgaver af de helt gamle messinginstrumenter, eller rettere sagt læbeblæse-instrumenter, for mange af dem er slet ikke lavet af messing.

Fig. 51  “PRIMITIVE MESSINGINSTRUMENTER.Fra venstre øverst: ” Jazz basunisten Steve Turre spiller på konkylie. Et lur-lignende metal-instrument fra 1880, Indien. OVERTON”-læbeblæse-instrument af bambus, med huller, Indonesien. Ny fabrikeret “Rag-Dung trompet” fra Tibet.


– Og der spilles stadig på jagthorn:


– AND ON NATURAL TRUMPET.  A TRUMPETER WITH FLORENCE’s CITY SYMBOL has performed at the Calcio Storico Games since the days the city was an Italian economic power during the Renaissance:







FIG. 53 FRONTPAGE TO 3 EDITIONS OF BRASS BULLETIN. During the period 1971-2003, the magazine Brass Bulletin published articles about brass instruments, brass players and events. The magazine was driven and edited by the Jean-Pierre Mathez, Switzerland.



Fig.   THE HISTORIC BRASS SOCIETY (HBS) was founded in 1988. It is an international music organization whose goal is to promote the exchange of serious ideas about the history and performance of brass instruments and brass music, ranging from Antiquity through the twentieth century.





Som det tidligere har været nævnt har der været nationale traditioner for en særlig spillemåde og klang. Indtil omkring 1950 var denne individualitet langt mere udpræget end i dag. På et tidspunkt begyndte alle orkestre at lyde mere og mere ens (se under USA) og det blev mere svært at høre om et orkester kom fra det ene eller det andet sted i verden. I dag prøver man i højere grad at gå tilbage og finde sin nationale identitet i klang og spillemåde.



Fig. 52  WIENER PHILHARMONIKERNES HORNGRUPPE MED WIENER-HORN OG WAGNERTUBAER under indspilningen af Rhinguldet 1960/1961 under ledelse af Georg Solti. 1.række fra venstre:  Gottfried von Freiberg, Josef Veleba, Josef Koller, Otto Nitsch, Leopold Kainz, Wolfgang Tomböck sen., Josef Samwald – 2. række med wagner-tubaer: Roland Berger, Hans Berger, Emil Kreuziger, Josef Lackner.

(NOTE: The horns are seated in the so-called Wiener arrangement with the 1st hornist furthest away in the picture – this arrangement has now been abandoned)

I Tyskland og Østrig nåede messingspillet en foreløbig kulmination hos senromantikerne.  Efter tidens forhold var klangen mørk, med f-horn og trompeter med drejeventiler, og baseret på sammenspil. Omkring år 1900 blev de tyske messingblæsere indiskutabelt regnet for at være de førende orkestermusikere. Da man på den tid stiftede en række orkestre i USA, måtte man i stor stil importere kvalificerede musikere, og som en tommelfingerregel hed det at man fik: “Strygere fra Rusland, træblæsere fra Frankrig og messingblæsere fra Tyskland”. Siden er klangen i Tyskland blevet noget lysere. I Berlinerfilharmonikerne og Wienerfilharmonikerne fastholder man den gamle klangtradition ved stadig at bruge de gamle instrumenter, eller kopier af dem.

Fig. 53  STEFAN SCHULTZ  er basbasunist i Berliner Philharmonikerne siden 2002. I lang tid var solospil på basbasun mest en amerikansk foreteelse, men det har helt ændret sig med den opmærksomhed  Stefan Schultz har fået som solist. Foto: Jarek Raczek.



Fig. 54  DEN FRANSKE TROMPETIST PIERRE THIBAUD 1929 – 2004, blev kendt som trompetsolist, 1. trompetist i Karl Richters orkester, indforskrevet 1.trompetist ved indspilninger af barokmusik  med Berliner Pilharmonikerne og en meget søgt lærer, bl.a. ved Pariser konservatoriet.

Allerede i 1800-tallet var det instrumentale niveau højt i Frankrig, og allerede der stærkt centreret omkring den enkelte musikers solistiske udfoldelser. Derfor havde franske messinginstrumenter en lille boring, en lys klang, et ret intenst vibrato og trompeterne er altid med pumpeventiler. Da en af solo-trompetisterne i Pariseroperaens orkester engang i 1950-erne for første gang spillede på en medium-bore trompet, kom det sarkastisk fra hans sidemand: “Skal vi nu til at spille på flügelhorn ?”. Franske komponister som Claude Debussy (1862-1918) og Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) følte sig heller ikke spor tiltrukket af den fede og massive tyske messingklang, men var mere optaget af den præcise klangfarve fra hvert enkelt instrument.


Fig. 55  PARIS TROMBONEKVARTET  I EN REKLAME FOR INSTRUMENTFABRIKKEN SELMER, 1959. Fra venstre: Gabriel Masson, Marcel Galiegue, André Gosset og René Allain.  Læg mærke til at der stadig væk spilles uden basbasun, men med 4 tenorbasuner uden kvartventil. Gabriel Masson (1912-1975) var sin tids førende franske basunist, lærer på Pariser Konservatoriet og var med til en del indspilninger af solo og kammermusik – før 1960-erne var basun-indspilninger af den slags en sjældenhed.




Dublin Orchestral Society in the Royal University Concert Hall, c. 1900. Here are all the English specialties from this period: Trumpet parts played on Cornets, French Horns with piston valves and the english Bass Trombone in G with handle.

Engelsk spillestil og instrumentbygning var længe under fransk påvirkning, det kan høres tydeligt på gamle engelske indspilninger. I 1950-erne blev “amerikaniseringen”  med fyldigere og mørkere klang konsekvent indført i England  – især hos de dybe instrumenter. Det høres bl.a. i de mange film hvor musikken er indspillet af London Symphony Orchestra. Orkestrets mangeårige solobasunist Dennis Wick har formuleret det sådan: “Engleske messingblæsere har en tendens til at få en Europæisk klang på amerikanske instrumenter”.

De engelske Brass Bands er jo en hel institution for sig selv, men også de har undergået forandring, væk fra det “lyse franske vibratofulde” udtryk mod en fyldigere klang og en mere “almen” frasering .


Fig. 56  Øverst: SOLOSPILLERE I LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA MAURICE MURPHY, trompet,  OG DENNIS WICK, basun,  fotograferet i 1882 under en opførsel af Verdi’s Requiem med London Symphony Orchestra under ledelse af Claudio Abbado. Nederst: DERES NYESTE EFTERKOMMERE: PHILIP COBB ansat som 21-årig i 2009, og PETER MORE ansat 2014 som kun 18-årig – det yngste medlem af LSO nogensinde !





Fig. 57  VITALY BUJANOVSKY  (1928 – 993) var en legendarisk solohornist i Leningrads Philharmoniske orkester under Mravinsky og professor på Leningrad Konservatoriet. I 1985 blev han udnævnt til æresmedlem af “The International Horn Society”.

De russiske messingblæsere viser tydeligt deres kulturelle påvirkning i deres spil. Fra Tyskland har de fået deres særdeles fyldige klang og fra Frankrig deres meget ekspressive vibrato – det sidste fik en overgang de russiske valdhorn til at lyde helt saxofonagtige !


Fig. 58  SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH NAKARIAKOV (1977- ) har videreført den russiske messingtradition med et helt specielt udtryksfuldt spil. Lige fra han var kun 15 år har han foretaget en lang række opsigtsvækkende indspilninger af originalværker og transskriptioner af f.eks. solokoncerter der originalt er for violin eller cello, ofte udført på flügelhorn.


Fig. 59  JOE ALESSI (1959- ), solobasunist i New York Philharmonic Orchestra, lærer på Julliard School of Music og optræder ofte som solist.

Amerikansk messingspil hviler mest på tysk tradition, men har en overgang så at sige overhalet Europa “indenom”. Med deres flotte. skinnende og slagkraftige spil har de påvirket alle de mange, som er faldet for de amerikanske messingblæseres klang, præcision og rene intonation. Det er også  en ide fra USA at man som symfoniorkester-messingblæser dyrker den enkelte stemmes funktion 100% – dvs. ikke fokuserer så meget på at være solist, men igennem sin egen stemme at få sammenspillet i orkestrets messinggruppe til at fungere optimalt og dermed præge hele orkestrets fremtræden. Det kan man jo kun være positiv overfor, men i kampens hede forsvandt der en del af de nationale karakterer og en overgang virkede det som om alle orkestre begyndte at lyde ens. I dag arbejder man dog “world wide” på at bevare sin egenart uden at give køb på den tekniske kvalitet.


Fig. 60    CAROL JANTSCH (1985-) SOLOTUBAIST I PHIADELPHIA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA SIDEN 2006, – den første kvindelige tubaist I et førende amerikansk orkester og den yngste ansatte I sit orkester nogensinde.


Fig. 61  CHARLIE VERNON, BASBASUNIST I CHIGACO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA SIDEN 1986, efterfulgte Edward Kleinhammer  og er nærmest et fænomen, der med sin teknik og musikalitet har præget opfattelsen af den moderne basbasun.   


Fig. 62  Det hollandske Koncertgebouw orkesters BRASS ENSEMBLE dirigeret af deres tidligere solobasunist Ivan Meylemans.

Danmark, Sverige, Norge, Finland, Belgien og Holland er alle mindre lande som igennem tiderne har taget farve af påvirkninger fra både England, Frankrig, Tyskland, Rusland og i nyere tid især fra USA. Deres messingblæsere har dog formået at markere sig internationalt, både som orkestermusikere og som solister. F.eks. blev det hollandske KONCERTGEBOUW-ORKESTER i forbindelse med en vurdering i det engelske blad The Grammophone  udnævnt til intet mindre end verdens bedste symfoniorkester. Et sådant udsagn er jo smags-baseret og kan selvfølgelig ikke tages helt alvorligt, men det siger alligevel noget om orkstrets standard at det kan blive udråbt som verdens nr.1!

Fig. 63   TROMPETISTEN HÅKAN HARDENBERGER (1951-), SVERIGE har skabt sig en solistkarriere som en virtous der både behersker det klassiske og helt nye repertoire, og han har fået skrevet værker til sig af  en række prominente nulevende komponister. Hardenberger er blevet kaldt for: “the cleanest, subtlest trumpeter on earth”. H.H er også professor på Malmø Musikkonservatorium 


Hvis man forestiller sig klangen fra et kor, hvor alle 4 stemmer klinger så godt sammen, at at den ene stemmer glider over i den anden, så kan man grafisk vise det med en KLANGPYRAMIDE:


Lidt ligesom begrebet fra renæssance-tiden med en instrument-familie kaldet for : CONSORT. Det samme kan siges om strygerne i et symfoniorkester:


Det samme gælder også alle ”saxhornene” eller instrumenterne i det britiske Brass Band (bortset fra basuner), dvs, flügelhorn, bariton og euphonium og basser (tubaer)


Hos træblæserene er nærmest det modsat, med forskellige klangfarver og næsten kaleidoskopiske kontraster, i renæssance-tiden kaldet for BROKEN CONSORT. En træblæserkvintet kunne se således ud: 


– men ser vi  på symfoniorkestrets ”gamle” messing-instrumenter placerer de sig imellem ”consort” og ”broken consort”.

En messingkvintet kunne se sådan ud:


Først og fremmest ser messinginstrumenterne meget forskellige ud: Sopran-instrumentet (trompeten) spiller med ventiler og fremadrettet klangstykke, alt-instrumentet (valdhornet) spiller med en hånd i det bagudvendte klangstykke, tenor-instrumentet (basunen) spiller med træk i stedet for ventiler, og tubaen spiller med klangstykket opad. Alligevel spiller de ret godt sammen, men alle 4 instrumenter har deres arketypiske karakter og nærmest symbolske betydning i behold.

I dag er symbolikken dog kun en del af deres klingende fremtoning, for i dag kan alle messing-instrumenter udtrykke næsten hvad som helst – også det direkte modsatte hvad man forventede af dem ud fra deres udspring.

Trompeten har været et signal-givende militaristisk herre-instrument, en budbringer:

– men kan også fremstå som et meget folkeligt instrument:

Valdhornet har traditionelt været forbundet med jagt og natur:

– og er derefter blevet et generelt naturbeskrivende lyrisk instrument. I nyere tid har det vist sig i musikken til mange western-film og i 1978 hvor blev hornets klang blev direkte populær som en vigtig ingrediens til signatur-melodien fra TV-serien Dallas:

– og i dag kan hornet ses og høres i helt nye sammenhænge som f.eks. her ved et ”jazz-horn-symposium”:


Basunen har været et dommedagsinstrument, en ophøjet røst fra det himmelske (eller fra underverdenen) og englenes foretrukne instrument:


– Men bl.a. med sine “glissandi” (glidetoner) optræder den i andre sammenhænge med et mere  jordnært og direkte løssluppent udtryk  som f.eks. her:


Som den sidst ankomne messinginstrument var tubaen først og fremmest et effektivt basinstrument, og uden de andre instrumenters symbolske betydning har tubaen kunnet opfattes som ”klovnen i cirkus”:


– eller som en ”klumpedumpe”:

Therefore there are many prejudices about “tubism”. Fortunately tubaister very self-deprecating.

Det tog lang tid før end der blev skrevet seriøs solomusik for tuba, men allerede Richard Wagner kunne bruge den til noget dramatisk som dragen Fafners røst:


– men i dag kan tubaen også udtrykke noget så langt fra sin oprindelse som f.eks. en ”alfe-agtig” lethed og elegance: