CONTENTS IN THIS CHAPTER
Last updated 15/2 – 2018
1 – THE TROMBONE IN GERMANY
2 – THE TROMBONE AS A SOLO INSTRUMENT
3 – THE TROMBONE IN FRANCE
4 – THE TROMBONE IN UK
5 – THE VALVE TROMBONE
6 – THE CIMBASSO
7 – THE CONTRA BASS TROMBONE
8 – THE LOW BRASS IN THE VIENNA OPERA ORCHESTRA
9 – WIND BANDS/ORCHESTRA
10 – THE BAND STAND
11 – BRASS BANDS
12 – THE DISTIN FAMILY
13 – THE BRASS BAND MOVEMENTS PROPAGATION
14 – BRASS ORCHESTRA/ENSEMBLES
15 – WIND BANDS – WILHELM FRIEDRICH WIEPRECHT (1802-1872)
16 – PATRICK GILMORE (1829-1892)
17 – TWO FAMOUS STAR CORNET SOLOISTS – JULES LEVY AND MATTHEW ARBUCKLE
18 – OTHER WIND BANDS
19 – BACK STAGE BANDA (WIND BAND) IN OPERAS
20 – CHAMBER MUSIC
21 – THE BUILDING AF BRASS INSTRUMENTS
22 – GERMAN INSTRUMENT MAKERS
23 – INSTRUMENT MAKING IN ENGLAND – BESSON
24 – DISTIN
25 – A WELL TRAINED ORCHESTRA
1. THE TROMBONE IN GERMANY
In the first part of the 1800rds the trombone established itself more and more as a solid part of the symphony orchestra, and from about 1840 they are almost obligatory. Franz Schubert (1797-1828) writes rather advanced parts for trombone in his masses and remarkably enough for that time, also in his symphony no.8 ”Unfinished” (1822) and no.9 (1830) , his last two symphonies. Mendelssohn thought the trombone really sacral and used it only in one of his symphonies, Symphony no.5 (1830) ”the Reformation”, where the last part is based on the chorale by Luther, “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (A mighty Fortress is our God).
Fig. 31 GERMAN ALTO-, TENOR- and BASS TROMBONE
In the beginning of the 1800rds the classical German trombone group existed of an alto trombone in Eb, a tenor trombone in Bb and a bass trombone in F.
Fig. 32 GERMAN TENOR TROMBONE WITH A ROTARY F-VALVE. In 1839 the instrument maker C.F. Sattler, Leipzig, put a rotary valve on the tenor trombone, which made it possible to change the pitch to F: an F-valve. This valve made it almost possible for the bass trombone to get as low as BB (in a chromatic way), (C is difficult and B almost impossible), and this trombone was in the beginning called “tenor-bass trombone”. Little by little it overtook the F-bass trombone and with a somewhat bigger bore it was called: ”Bass trombone”. The standard trombone group in the orchestras went from ”alto trombone in Eb, tenor trombone in Bb and bass trombone in F”, to ”two tenor trombones and one bass trombone – all in Bb”.
Fig. 33 THE TROMBONE SECTION IN A PRUSSIAN MILITARY BAND 1910. The F-bass trombone did not disappear overnight. On the left is a F-bass trombone with a handle on the slide.
When the F-valve was introduced on the trombone, it made a change in the trumpet/trombone group in the orchestra. In the brass group of natural trumpets and alto- tenor- and bass trombone was the alto – and even the tenor – often higher than the 2nd trumpet, because of the big distances between the low natural tones of the trumpet. With the natural trumpets it was now possible to make a pyramid of sound with the trumpets at the top and the trombones at the bottom. This meant that a second tenor trombone overtook the alto (also because they needed more volume). But the old names – alto, tenor and bass – were kept, rather as a definition of sound, not because a real alto was wished for. The 1st trombone part in Bruckner’s 4th symphony, “the Romantic”, says alto, but the part is clearly written for a tenor trombone. The 1st trombone parts in works by the ”classical” composers like Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann and Brahms sound idiomatically on alto, while the works by Bruckner, Wagner, Tchaikovsky , Dvorak and Rimsky Korsakov are written with a tenor trombone in mind.
2. THE TROMBONE AS A SOLO INSTRUMENT
The trombone was the instrument that had the least alterations with the invention of the valve. The bore and the bell were bigger but the instrument was still ”the old instrument”. The trombone had though been ”away from the spotlights” for a long time and was now suddenly seen as a completely new instrument. Strangely enough two trombone players became the leading wind-soloists of that period.
Fig. 33 To the left: FRIEDRICH AUGUST BELCKE (1795-1874) and to the right: CARL TRAUGOTT QUEISSER (1800-1846) -two German trombone players who played at big music festivals all over Europe, and often with the leading stars of that time, such as: Clara Schumann, Franz Liszt and Niccolo Paganini. Belcke came from the court orchestra of Friedrich III in Berlin, and Queisser from the Gewandhaus orchestra in Leipzig. When you look at their outstanding career, and see that they are almost forgotten, it is because of the repertoire: it went the same way! The piece from their repertoire that is best known is the ”Ferdinand David’s Concertino for trombone op.4”, written for Queisser in 1837 – today maybe the most performed trombone-concert of all.
Another well known romantic trombone concerto is the Concerto for trombone and harmony orchestra written by the Russian composer Rimski-Korsakov in 1877.
3. THE TROMBONE IN FRANCE
The German trombone was full and relatively dark in sound, while the French trombone was light in sound, with a small, almost “baroque’ish” bore. The French music life existed mainly of free-lance musicians. To be free and not bound of specialisms the French trombone group was put together with three tenor trombones without a special F-valve. That is the reason why the French bass trombone parts never get lower than E.
Fig. 34 3 ILLUSTRATIONS FROM FRENCH TROMBONE METHODS. During the 1800 hundred century wrote three leading French trombonists each their trombone method: Vorbaron in 1834, Antoine Dieppo in 1837 and Cornette in 1854. The french trombone had a narrow bore, nearly like a Baroque Trombone.
Fig. 35 FRENCH COUTOIS TENOR TROMBONE FROM 1866
Fig. 36 MELODY FOR 200 TROMBONES.,1844—France: Famous caricaturist Jean-Ignace-Isidore Gérard (also known as J. J. Grandville) publishes a caricature – A parody of perceived overuse of brass in contemporary music, it depicts 2 longs lines of trombonists. The caption instructs that the piece be played “with fire, fortissimo, repeated 300 times, then louder still” .
4. THE TROMBONE IN UK
FIG. 40 The LOW BRASS GROUP IN LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 1922. The French trombone sound was taken over by the Englishmen. The small bore on the English trombone gave it the nickname “peashooter”. The 2 tenor trombones were supplemented with the English specialty, “Bass Trombone in G”, with handle on the slide like the F Trombone.
Fig. 41 BRITISH G-BASS TROMBONE. English trombone player Denis Wick tells (see PROMINENT TROMBONE PLAYERS in THE 20′ CENTURY I) TELLS: “The mystery of a G rather than the german F bass trombone has never been satisfactorily explained, except possibly guessed at by me. My theory is that playing in the front of a marching band, the spectacular effect of tonic-and-dominant “ompah” notes were really effective in the traditional keys of Ab and Db, where the six-foot length of trombone slide was waving about. A sight to behold !”. In the 1920s the company Boosey had produced a slightly larger orchestral model G bass trombone with a valve to D – this could play the missing low C and B required in the symphonic repertoire that have been written for the continental F bass trombone (shown on Fig. 40).
Fig. 42 SIDNEY LANGSTON (here in the ceremonial uniform of H.M. Life Guards Band) was Dennis Wick’s teacher at the Royal Academy of Music. Like all English trombonists up to the 1950s, he still played on a small bore trombone – called Peashooter.
5. THE VALVE TROMBONE
The valve system was also used on the trombones, and alto-, tenor-, as well as bass trombones were built with a valve system. They were immediately used in the wind orchestras and they got very popular. The valve trombone was probably more common in the nineteenth century than the slide trombone. The exception was in Britain, where the slide instrument seems to have been more prominent. This might have been because some brass band contests explicitly banned the use of valve trombones. For a while the valve trombones were also used in symphony orchestras, the technical parts were easier to play, but the special warmness in the sound and the intonation got lost, and that is why they switched again back to the slide trombones.
In Spain and Italy the valve trombones lived somewhat longer. All trombone parts by Verdi are written with a valve trombone in mind, sometimes he even writes trills in his trombone parts.
Fig.37 TENOR VALVE TROMBONE from USA, 1875
Alto Valve Trombone, se fig. 62, Bass Valve trombone se fig. 43 & 44
Fig. 38 GIOVACCHINO BIMBONI (1810-1895), ITALY, PLAYING A VALVE TROMBONE. Lithograph by Guiseppe Ciardi. In 1860 Bimboni is appointed professor of trumpet and trombone at the Cherubini Conservatory, Firenze. Between 1880 and 1889 he writes a valve trombone method, Metodo per trombone a piston. He also performed as soloist on the valve trombone. Bimboni played exclusively Italian operatic arias or variations and potpourris based on them.
Fig. 39 BIMBONIFONO. In 1850 Bimboni invents a valve trombone called a “Bimbonifono” in which a separate rotary valve is used for each of the seven slide positions in an attempt to avoid the tuning problems of other valve systems.
Fig. 40 VALVE TROMBONE WITH UPWARDS POINTING BELL MADE BY THE SWEDISH COMPANY AHLBERG OG OHLSSON c. 1900. Photo from Internet Forum Horn–u-Copia.
Fig. 39 VALVE TROMBONES – German picture from 1905 – 1910.
Fig. 40 CIGARETTE PACK for W. DUKES & SONS 1888 – with a female valve trombone player.
6. THE CIMBASSO
There is an instrument in Verdi’s orchestral piece which is called, Cimbasso, – a combination of “C in basso”. The part was first played on an ophicleide, russian bassoon or serpentone, but, as it is placed directly under the trombones in the score, it is for many years played on the tuba. Verdi only wrote for tuba, bombardone, in the off stage music for wind band which appears in many of his operas. We know for sure that Verdi gave it some thought. He did not like the sound of the tuba under the trombones, in his opinion it was not homogeneous. In connection with the premiere of his opera Aida (1871) in Cairo he writes to Guillio Ricordi, the publisher:
“I would prefer a bass trombone that is of the same family as the other trombones, but if it is too difficult or too weary to play the part, use rather a normal ophicleide that can go as low as the deep B – or do whatever you like, if only you do not use the dammed bombardone, (tuba) which absolutely does not mix with the other instruments”.
In 1881 Verdi did something himself to solve his problem. He listened to a range of deep brass instruments at the firm of the instrument maker Giuseppe Pelitti in Rome. And he got Pelitti to build a contra bass trombone in BB with valves – a complete octave lower than the tenor trombone. This is the instrument that Verdi had in mind in his two last operas, Othello and Falstaff, when he wrote Trombone basso. This instrument is also one of the characteristic ingredients in Verdis orchestral sound: A shrieking piccolo flute, a roaring bass drum and a hot-tempered cimbasso (often almost a contra bass trombone). In the last part of the 18th century the Italian low brass group existed of four valve trombones: two tenor trombones in Bb, one bass trombone in F and one contra bass trombone in BB.
Fig. 40 CIMBASSO in BB
7. THE CONTRA BASS TROMBONE
Also Wagner lowered the sound of the trombones. At Wagner’s request, a special contra bass trombone in CC with a double slide was built to be used in the “Ring of the Nibelung” Like the bass trumpet and the Wagner tuba this instrument was also built by Johann Moritz in Berlin. With this contra bass trombone Wagner got a splendid effective bass in the trombone group, and it is used at its best with lots of striking solo parts and chorale sounding accompaniments
Fig. 41 CONTRA BASS TROMBONE IN CC WITH DOUBLE SLIDE
Photography of the tuba player August Helleberg in 1905 with an instrument like the contra bass trombone that was built for Wagner’s Ring of the Nibelung.
Fig. 42 CONTRA BASS TROMBONE, MODEL PROFUNDO, IN BB WITH DOUBLE SLIDE FROM 1885. Bell section in a round formation encircles the player’s left arm. Bell Stamped: Class A/TRADEMARK/DISTIN/BOOSEY & Co./295 REGENT STt./LONDON/31260. The right figure shows the correct assembly of the instrument.
Fig. 43 CONTRABASS TROMBONE IN CC MADE BY BOOSEY & Co, ENGLAND . This instrument was for many years the contrabass trombone used in British performances of music from Wagner’s Ring cycle and was known in the profession as ‘KING KONG’.
Around 1900 the valve trombone was still in use. In Opera houses in Scandinavian, Germany, and Austria 3rd and 4th trombone parts (cimbasso- and contrabass trombone parts) were often played on a valve-instrument in F like this:
Fig. 44 VALVE TROMBONE in F , MADE c. 1890 BY: “Winter & Schöner”, Linz, Austria
Fig. 45 DANISH MILITARY BAND, photo from 1811. The valve trombone in F was also used for the lower trombone parts i bands. On the close up you can clearly see an F-valve bass trombone:
8. THE LOW BRASS IN THE VIENNA OPERA ORCHESTRA
(FROM 1842 ALSO THE VIENNA PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA)
As an example of the development of the low brass instruments, we have a number of specific information from the Vienna Opera Orchestra.
In 1828 wrote Andreas Nemetz, trombonist of the Hofoper, a trombone method. He describes the alto, tenor and bass trombone as trombones tuned in Bb but using different mouthpieces. The F-trombone was, here at least, mostly used in military bands. Since the military band responsible for the stage music at the Vienna Opera had an F bass trombone, this instrument was nevertheless introduced to the opera, initially as a part of the stage music that occurs in many operas.
I 1835 Milan was a part of Austria and until 1848 Carlo Balochino and Bartolomeo Merelli was directors of both the Scala Opera in Milan and the Court Opera in Vienna, and it was under the influence from Milan that the idea of valve trombones came to Vienna.
Fig. 46 LEOPOLD UHLMANNS (1806-1878) IMPERIAL, ROYAL PRIVILEGED WORKSHOP 1847. The Uhlmann family consisted of the father, Johann Tobias whose business flourished from 1810-1838, and three sons: Jakob (business – 1830-1851), Joesph (business 1843-1859) and Loepold (business 1834-1878). Leopold is famous for inventing the Vienna-valve.
Around the mid 1830’ the use of the valve trombone begun. The only thing we know about theese first valve trombones is that they were manufactured by the Austrian company Uhlmann. The lower 4. part in the low brass section (todays tuba part) was played on the bombardon, a narrow bore vienna valve ophicleide patented by Joseph Riedl, Vienna in 1829. It was build wit with 2 vienna-valves and from 1833 with 3 or 4 vienna-valves (a kind of tuba made even earlier than the official birthday of the tuba 12. of September 1835 ?).
Fig. 47 UHLMANN BOMBARDON ca. 1840
Fig. 48 LEOPOLD UHLMANN ADVERTISEMENT C. 1848
In 1858 the Vienna opera bought on request of bass trombonist Franz Pöckh a 4 valve basstrombone with 3 crooks. We don’t know if it was in Bb or F but according to Ignaz Assmayr, director of the Hofkapelle, it was “an instrument that was currently used in all orcestras”.
Fig. 49 LEOPOLD UHLMANN’S TENOR TROMBONES IN Bb AND BASS TROMBONES IN F WITH VALVES (1847) L. with Vienna valves, R. with rotary valves.
In 1868 the opera ordered 3 valve trombones in Bb and 2 valve bass trombones in F for the orchestrea, and further more 2 bass trombones in F for the stage music – all from the company of Leopold Uhlmann. In 1875 tubist Otto Waldemar Brucks introduced the Moritz Wieprecht tuba, a narrow bore tuba in F with a light trombonistic sound.
Fig. MORITZ WIEPRECHT TUBA FROM 1835
In 1883 the slide trombone was reintroduced when the opera bought: 1 Eb-alto slide trombone, one Bb-tenor slide trombone and 2 Bb-tenor-bass slide trombones (with f-valve). Fourth trombone parts (contrabass trombone parts and cimbasso parts) was still played on the F-valve bass trombone.
In 1927 the Vienna tubist Friederich Tritt played the contrabass trombone part in the Ring in Bayreuth but now surprisingly on a F-slide trombone ! He later also used it in the Vienna Opera.
Fig. 48 BASSTROMBONIST FROM THE VIENNA PHILHARMONIC ORCH. KARL JEITLER WITH FRIEDERICH TRITT’s BASS TROMBONE in F FROM 1927. Due to embouchure problems switching between the tuba mouthpiece and the smaller mouthpiece to the F-slide trombone, the F-valve bass trombone was reintroduced.
Fig. 49 PROF. FRIEDERICH KNAPKE, TUBIST IN THE VIENNA PHILHARMONIC 1919 – 1943, WITH HIS 6 VALVE VIENNA TUBA
In 1928 the tubist in Vienna Philhamonic Friederick Knapfe played on a so called vienna tuba. This tuba was pitched in F still with a small bore but now with 6 valves. Since the 2 tubaists in the orchestra were responsible for the F-valve bass trombone parts, a new F-valve bass trombone was made by request from Knapfe, but now with the same 6-valve system as the Vienna tuba. This instrument was used for Cimbasso parts, Puccini contrabass trombone parts and – strangely enough – also for contrabass trombone-parts of Wagner until 1995 when the tubaist Josef Hummel retired.
Fig. 50 JOSEF HUMMEL PLAYS ON 6 VALVE TROMBONE IN F – during recording of Wagner’s Ring with Georg Solti as conductor in 1965.
9. WIND BANDS/ORCHESTRAS
The introduction of the valve instruments caused a real revolution in the wind bands/orchestras, in seize as well as in strength. It happened little by little, not as standardized as nowadays. The wind bands were very popular and to a lot of people it was the only type of orchestra one ever heard. The repertoire was mostly national hymns, marches, and more of that kind of music, but arrangements of all kind of popular music and “classical” music were played. Most composers agreed with no further comment that their music was arranged for wind band, at that time there was no such thing as ”copyright” and they mostly saw it as some good and “free” publicity.
10. THE BAND STAND
Fig. 51 BAND STAND – THE NAME SAYS IT ALL. As wind bands/brass bands began to get bigger, Band Stands appeared everywhere as a platform for outdoor concert performances.
11. BRASS BANDS
Adolph Sax expected a lot of his Sax horns, but through the English Brass Bands they got a breakthrough and spread which surely will have been far above his expectations.
12. THE DISTIN FAMILY
Fig. 52 DISTIN FAMILY QUINTET about 1834. John Distin (1798-1863), the former keyed bugle player, travelled with his four sons George, Henry, William and Theodore performed on brass instruments as The Celebrated Distin Family . In Paris they got acquainted with Sax, who made them a set of saxhorn in 1844.(see more about Distin in ROMANTICISM I, OTHER INSTRUMENT FAMILYS and later here in ROMANTICISM II under INSTRUMENT MAKING IN ENGLAND).
Accounts vary as to exactly how the Distins first acquired their saxhorns. In the accounts by the Distins themselves it began the February 3rd, 1844 , on hearing “a French artist” (or three, as it is likely that the Distin’s heard François Dauverné (see ROMANTICISM I, 20 – THE TRUMPET), Jean-Baptiste Arban (see ROMANTICISM I, 8 – THE CORNET á PISTON) and Jean–Louis Dufresne (1810–1866) at the concert at Salle Herz,) perform on the new saxhorn . The next morning the Distins went to inventor Adolph Sax, who had only completed three instruments as models – a soprano in Eb, contralto (soprano) in Bb and an alto in Eb – and had not yet any for sale. Henry Distin made an arrangement for the loan of the three instruments, and when they were tried by his family at their hotel the combined tone awoke a sort of enthusiasm. Mr Sax readily agreed to complete the necessary instruments on the same principle for the quintet, and as soon as sufficient practice in their use had been attained they were brought out in public.
Fig. 53 SALLE HERTZ, PARIS 1843 – the location of the Adolphe Sax concert attended by the Distin Family.
The Distin family was really successful on their concert tours in England. The Sax horns made the family famous and the family helped create the british brass band movement. Here is a review from The Illustrated London News, December 14th, 1844: ‘The Distins are at present the only performers on the Sax Horns, which unites the powers of the French horn and those of the cornet-à-piston, but is infinitely superior to both, for it combines the mellowness and sweetness of the former, with all the brilliancy and power of the latter. The pieces which the Distins perform are of their own arrangement, and do credit to their musical skill.’
Fig. 54 DISTIN FAMILY QUINTET 1845 . Charles Baugniet (1814-86), lithograph. Collection Arnold Myers.
13. THE BRASS BAND MOVEMENTS PROPAGATION
The phenomenon ”Brass band” belonged to the English working class, as a kind of social activity, but also appeared in other social environments, as for example ”the Carafathy Band”, founded in 1838 and privately financed by the ”iron- & cole baron” Robert Thompson Crawahay. From the middle of the 1800rds the English Brass bands activity was build around competitions, as we know from the world of sports. It was rather ironical, as the 1st price for the many bands who still played the ophicleide often was an euphonium – the instrument that little by little displaced the ophicleide.
Fig. 55 BESSES O’ TH’ BARN BRASS BAND about 1870. This band was already founded in 1818. The picture shows that in the 2nd. half of the 1800rds. The strenght of the band still was kind of loose, there is a clarinet and two ophicleides. In time the combination of instruments got more and more standardised though.
A Brass band exists of a soft sounding instrument family (apart from the trombones) which is almost identical with the Sax-horn family. The biggest difference is the soprano, the cornet, which is not like the tuba, with an upward bell, but the bell is pointed straight forward. A Brass band does not have the same contrast in sound like a wind band, but it can have a very homogeneous sound , like a string orchestra or a choir. It was possible to subscribe to publications of Brass band sheet music. You could buy the most important parts, and later, if necessary, buy the rest. Only a few parts were important, so those players who were not that qualified could easily join the band later and play the less important parts. All parts (apart from the bass drum and the bass trombone) were written in the G-treble key, so the fingering was the same for all instruments which made it easy to switch between instruments. (not for the trombones though, as they had slides i.s.o. valves).
The popularity was enormous and in the end of the 1800 century there were about 20.000 Brass bands in Great Britain, that means that there were about 800.000 amateur musicians. The press wrote that at a special Brass Band competition there were more than 160.000 people in the audience.
Fig. 56 ALEXANDER BRASS BAND, NEW ZEALAND 1900. From Great Britain, the brass band movement came to Australia and New Zealand. Only later it was spread to other countries.
14. BRASS ORCHESTRAS/ENSEMBLES
In many places small ”brass” orchestras (or rather ensembles) came into being – from quartets up till big military orchestras. In Denmark and Norway they were called horn orchestras (hornorkestre), in Sweden Brunns sextet (even if there were seven musicians included percussion) or hornseptett, in Finland torviseitsikko, in Germany they were called Trombone choir (Posaunenchor- which mostly played in churches) and in USA: Brass bands (which had nothing to do though with the English Brass bands). At the age of 19 the finish composer Jean Sibelius (1865 – 1957) wrote a series of small pieces for a brass orchestra that existed of: cornet in Eb, two cornets in Bb, alto horn in Eb, tenor horn in Bb, euphonium in Bb and tuba.
Fig. 57 DRAWING OF AN AMERICAN MILITARY BANS WITH “OVER THE SHOULDERS” INSTRUMENTS
Fig. 58 8TH NEW YORK STATE MILITIA BAND, in ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 1861
Fig. 59 BANDSMEN of THE 107th U.S. COLORED INFANTRY. 1865
fig. 60 FROM THE FIRST BRASS BAND CONCERT IN COLORADO, USA, picture taken in Black Hawk, 1863
Fig. 61 BAND AF THE 10th VETERAN CORPS. WASHINGTON, D.C. 1865
Fig. 62 FEMALE BRASS BAND FROM SALVATION ARMY, USA 1880.
Fig. 63 NIELS ALBRECHTSEN HORN ORCHESTRA FROM ABOUT 1880. N. Albrichtsen is to the left on the front row. Theese small brass ensembles were splendid to play in the open air. They got very popular in small as well in bigger towns and in the countryside.
Fig. 64 BRUNNS SEXTET FROM MEDIVI, SWEDEN 1912. Even being civilian, as an exception they perform here in militairy uniforms. Take a look at the valve trombone with the bent bell, a Swedish speciality made by the Swedish company Ahlberg and Ohlsson, who made brass instruments from 1850-1959.
Fig. 65 A COMPLETE SET OF BRUNNS SEXTET-INSTRUMENTS FROM AHLBERG AND OHLSSON
Fig. 66 WERNERBLECKET – A BRUNNS SEXTET FROM OUR TIME
Fig. 67 POSAUNENCHOR, PHOTO from 1889.The German protestant Posaunenchor-movement played in churches.
Fig. 68 JOHANNES KUHLO (1856-1942) and his KUHLO-HORN. The name POSAUNENCHOR got somewhat misleading at the time when the valve instruments came along, because from that moment the ”posaunenchor-movement” ensembles existet only of soft sounding valve instruments. The priest Johannes Kuhlo was a person who had made a speciel flugelhorn, that got his name: “Kuhlo horn”. In his opinion the soft sound was so important that he said: ”Why be content with a sparrow or a chaffinch, (cornetto or trumpet) when you can have a nightingale! ”(Kuhlo horn)
Fig. 69 DANISH POSAUNENCHOR FROM THE MORAVIAN BRETHREN, CHRISTIANSFELD. Among their instruments are 3 Kuhlo-horns (look after TROMBONE ENSEMBLES, VIENNESE).
Fig. AN ARMY BAND OF THE NETHERLANDS TAKES A BREAK – painting circa late 19th century
Fig. DIE ”KAPELLE HARTNER” (Burgbernheim) 1901
Fig. 70 New Years card from 1904, painted by Alfred Mailich (1869-1946). In Germany the brass ensembles still have the old tradition to play from the city tower.
Fig 71 A VERY SPECIAL RUSSIAN BRASS BAND, PHOTO from 1872. The Russian Czar Alexander III (who reigned from 1881-1896) was members of a musical society. Here he is standing, 3rd form the left playing the alto-/tenor horn in the village of Krasnoe where they played often. He owned a big collection of musical instruments and he was a fine amateur musician.
Fig. 72 PARADE OF THE GUARDS in COPENHAGEN, DENMARK 1892. Music Corps of the Regiment with brass instruments. Part of the painting by E. Henningsen.
Fig. METLAKAHTLA INDIAN BAND 1907, Alaska, USA
15. WIND BANDS – WILHELM FRIEDRICH WIEPRECHT (1802-1872)
The Wind Bands, with their wood and brass wind players prospered with the new valve instruments. There were (if possible) even more individual strenghts of instruments without any standardisation whatever. Compared with the Brass Band there are many more contrasts in the harmony orchestras with much more variation and possibilities in sound, which was, allready at that time, somewhat like the sound of a symphony orchestra. There were harmony orchestras all over Europe and USA. What did they sound like? After some research with old arrangements and with old instruments the verdict is that they sounded like the orchestras of today, albeit somewhat ”diffuse”, and with some problems in intonation and not that loud. The balance would certainly have been in favour of the woodwinds.
Fig. 73 WILHELM FRIEDRICH WIEPRECHT (1802-1872), COMPOSER, ARRANGER AND CONDUCTOR – not only partner in the invention of the tuba, (see Romanticism I), but a pioneer in the development of the modern wind band. He finally became the chief of the complete Preusian military music, which he reformed using his own ideas. He worked with big strenghts, using all new valve instruments, focusing on the sound in the middle and low register of the harmony orchestra. He became very famous, and his work was praised by composers, like Leo Delibes, Hector Berlioz, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Caspara Spontini, Ambriose Thomas, Franz Liszt and the conductor Hans von Bülow. The climax in his career took place on the 21st of june 1867, at the world exhibition in Paris, where he won the competition for military orchestras, and there were orchestras from nine countries!
Fig. 74 MILITARY MUSICIANS, AT THE WORLD EXHIBITION IN PARIS 1867
Fig. 75 A RUSSIAN LINE-INFANTERY REGIMENT AND IT’S BAND WHICH CONSIST MOSTLY OF BRASS INSTRUMENTS. During the reign of Emperor Alexander III, 1881-1894. (He was very interested in brass instruments and an enthousiastic amateur musician himself. (see Brass Orchestras7Ensembles fig. 53)
16. PATRICK GILMORE (1829-1892)
The wind bands spread all over USA and became extreme popular. One important person was PATRICK GILMORE. He became the conductor of New York 22nd Regiment Band, also called Gilmore’s Band, the first professional wind band in the USA. The band was a pioneer of its kind, it performed all over America and was on tour in Europe. The brass section in Gilmores band was rather big: 1 Eb- cornet, 4 Bb-cornets(2 parts), 2 Bb-trumpets, 2 Bb-flügelhorns, 4 french horns, 2 Eb-tenorhorns, 2 baritones, 2 euphoniums 3 trombones og 5 tubas.
Gilmore arranged spectacular performances as well, he had the musical responsibility for two big festivals with an amazing amount of participants: “National Piece Jubilee ” and “World’s Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival “.
Fig. 76 PATRICK GILMORE (1829-1892). He came from Ireland and worked at first as a cornet player. There is a famous ”duel” between Gilmore on the cornet and Ned Kendall on the keyed bugle in december 1856.The competition should show which instrument was best, but even if it almost was a draw, the winner was Gilmore on the cornet. (see: Keyed bugle, Viennese ).
Fig. 77 NATIONAL PEACE JUBILEE HALL, INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR built in Boston for the National Piece Jubilee 1869, big enough for 50.000 people, amongst them 1000 musicians and 10.000 singers.
Fig. 78 WORLD PIECE COLLOSEUM, INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR, built in 1872 for the World’s Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival also in Boston, which could have twice as many people, that means 100.000 in the audience, 2000 musicians and 20.000 singers. Musicians from Europe performed here as well, amongst them Johann Strauss as a conductor. There was never ever such an amount of brass musicians in one place.
17. TWO FAMOUS STAR CORNET SOLOISTS – JULES LEVY AND MATTHEW ARBUCKLE
– who both came from Great Britain and became soloists in Patrick Gilmore’s band. They developed an immediate rivalry which Gilmore exploited. The rivalry between Arbuckle and Levy was anything but a secret, so Gilmore, realizing that each had their own following of admirers, decided to make the most of this battle of egos and boost ticket sales in the process. The cornet was the replacement for the keyed bugle that had been the solo instrument of choice some years earlier and no group of soloists seemed to capture the imagination of the populace as the cornet soloists.
Fig. 79 Left: JULES LEVY (1838–1903) was Born in London. After immigrating to the United States, he began a significant musical career as a cornet soloist.. He was a member of Patrick Gilmore’s’s band for several years, and was also a tester and promoter for the Conn Company manufacturer of musical instruments. Among Levy’s most famous were “Una Voce” by Rossini, “Carneval of venice” “Grand Russian Fantasia”, and his favorite “Whirlwind Polka”. He was arguably the first cornetist to be recorded, having participated in an early public demonstration of Thomas Edison’s’s phonograph. Levy’s prodigious ego was easily observed in his attire. He refused tol wear uniform, preferring to wear a dress suit adorned with his medals and a monocle stuck in his eye. Levy was billed as “The World’s Greatest Cornetist”, widely regarded as a foremost player, although the claim of World’s Greatest has some challengers. One of them was:
Right: MATTHEW ARBUCKLE (1828 – 1883) known as “The Great Favorite American Cornet Player”. He was born in Lochside, near Glasgow, Scotland 1828, into a very musical family. At the age of 13 he persuaded his father to let him enter the English Army as a musician. He took later what is called a “French leave” – in other words he deserted the Army and emigrated to USA. (This is also why he never came back to England on tour). From 1860 Arbuckle joined Gilmore’s Band. At the National Peace Jubilee in 1869, Arbuckle played the trumpet obbligato, accompanying Madame Parepa Rosa in the aria from Samson by G. F. Handel, “Let the Bright Seraphim”. At the World Peace Jubilee of 1872, Arbuckle conducted the opening fanfare of fifty trumpeters and played the same trumpet obbligato part with Madame Ermina Ruggersdorf. In 1880, he became the musical director and bandmaster for the Ninth Regiment in New York.
18. OTHER WIND BANDS
Fig. 80 GUISEPPE CREATORE AND HIS ’ITALIEN’ HARMONY ORCHESTRA. A picture from Boston from around 1900. There was a time when harmony orchestras like this one were imported from Italy to the USA. Guiseppe Creatore was reported to have created a hypnotic spell over the musicians–one that exacted the most inspired performance. Stories claimed he also had a spell over the audience, especially the women who reportedly jumped on the top of tables and writhed and emoted as if in a frenzy.
Fig. 81 MONSTER-CONCERT. This gigantic band of 120 German military musicians posed for the camera on the extended stage of the Tivoli Beer Garden in Hannover, Germany. The title Monstre-Concert was a French term used to describe performances by especially large forces of musicians and instruments, usually with hundreds of brass, percussion, and woodwinds. In the 19th century there was of course no electronic amplification, so more instruments equaled more dynamic volume. For special outdoor occasions or sometimes in very large halls, several regimental wind bands would be assembled into a single monstrous musical ensemble. This concert dates from no later than the 1903 postmark on the back of the postcard sent to Mr. Louis Persenot of Saint-Denis, Paris, France
Fig. 82 MEMBERS AF THE DANISH LIFE GUARDS BAND, PHOTO FROM 1875. The following characteristic brass instruments is shown, from L: Alto Valve trombone. Tenor Valave trombone, 2 French horns, Trumpet with rotary valves and a F-tuba.
Fig. 83 BUFFALO BILL CIRKUS’s COWBOY BAND, April 28, 1887. photo by “W. & D. Downey.
19. BACK STAGE BANDA (WIND BAND) IN OPERAS
Fig. 84 ITALIAN TRUMPET PLAYER c.1840 – maybe a member of a ”Verdi-banda”?
Composers such as Rossini and Verdi made use of back stage music played by a banda (wind band) in their operas. The banda comprised about twenty players, but was generally not part of the opera company – usually, the local impressario selected the players from a military band or an amateur wind band . Composers wrote music on two staves and the local bandmaster arranged the music for the wind band.
At the Paris Opera Adolphe Sax was leader of the stage band from 1847 until 1892. He arranged only for brass instruments, and took advantage of the opportunity to among other use his own instruments: Sax trompas, sax horns and sax tubas.
It was especially Verdi who used stage music in his operas. The so-called Kinsky band at Venice had a very high reputation, but Verdi had refused to write for it in his opera Attila. After this had been criticized he took later good care to include stege music in all his subsequent operas written for the “Teatro La Fenice” in Venice.
Fig. 85 FANFARE DEI BERSAGLIERI – a contemporary version of Verdi’s banda?
20. CHAMBER MUSIC
Fig. 86 UNKNOWN BRASS QUINTET FROM 1865
One would expect that chamber music for brass instruments would florish with all these new chromatic brass instruments with valves. However, there was no tradition to build on, people should almost ”invent” it. So there is very little chamber music written for brass, it is possible that the brass sound was more associated with a big orchestra or with the popular music repertoire.
Fig. 87 LUDVIG MAURER (1789-1878) – from Germany is known as one of the first to try the genre. was a german composer, conducter and violinist. Maurer went to Russia at in 1806, where he would stay for most of his life. For this reason, Maurer is considered both a German and a Russian composer. In Russia, Maurer became the conductor of the Count Vsevolozhsky’s orchestra until 1817 when he toured as a performer in Germany and Paris. By 1833, however, Maurer was back in St. Petersburg, where he would remain for the rest of his life. He became musical director at the Mikhaylovsky Theater, known as the “French Theatre”, 1841-62 Inspector of Imperial Orchestras and 1841-71 conductor of the orchestral concerts of the Imperial Concert Society, with the title of “Imperial Russian Conductor”. His “12 small pieces” for two trumpets, two horns and trombone, is written in a charming Viennese Classic style , and it is nowadays still part of the standard repertoire for modern brass quintets (2 trumpets, horn, trombone and tuba). His brass music was written for either in the circle of Russian amateur musicians around Tsar Alexander II. Nicolayevitch Romanov (see Fig. 53 ), or else in the brass chamber music class established at the St. Petersburg Conservatory by its first professor of cornet, Wilhelm Wurm, Germany (1826-1904, professor from 1869).
Fig. 88 WILHELM EMILIO RAMSÖE (1837-1895) – Danish composer and conductor. He worked in Copenhagen, for example at the ”Folketeatret”. In approximately 1877, he moved to St.Petersborg,first working as a viola player in the Italian opera orchestra, and later at the Bolshoi Theater with the Russian opera orchestra. In 1887 he was engaged as Royal “music director” at the Mikhaylovsky Theater, known as the “French Theatre” (the same position as Mauer had earlier). His ”6 quartets for brass” are exceptional and were written between 1867 and 1888. They all have four movements, and are almost written like a string quartet. The quartets are written for: Cornet in Bb, trumpet in F, (valve-), trombone and tuba, but not the fifth, that one is written for 2 cornettos, althorn in Eb and tuba. They were published with parts and score, first at the publishers Horneman & Erslev, and later at Wilhelm Hansens Music Publishers. His 6th quartet, which has remained in manuscript, was composed for the famous “Kaiser-Cornet-Quartett” of Julius Kosleck (1825-1905) from Berlin (see ROMANTISICM I, Fig. 9 ).
Fig. 89 DANISH BRASS QUARTET PLAYING RAMSÖE, photo 1910.
Wilhelm Suhr – cornet
Lauritz Sørensen (kapel nr.7 05) – trompet
Anton Hansen (kapel nr. 694) – ventilbasun
Jensen Jørgensen (kapel nr. 732) – tuba
Fig. 90 VICTOR EWALD (1860-1935) – is seen as the father of the modern brass wind quintet. Victor Ewald (1860-1935) was born in the then Russian capital of St. Petersburg and lived most of his life there. At the surprisingly young age of 12, he entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory where he studied cello with the famous virtuoso Karl Davidov and composition with Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov. He pursued a dual career as a professor of civil engineering and as a musician. He served for 20 years as the cellist of the famous Belaiev String Quartet and composed a string quartet which was awarded a prize in a quartet competition whose judges were Tchaikovsky and Rimsky Korsakov. He lived in Sct. Petersburg, Russia, and like many Russian composers of that time, he had another civil job. Ewald was a mechanical engineer, and apart from being a composer and being a cellist, he played the cornet, the trumpet, the tuba and the piano in his life. His ”3 quintets” were written between 1888 – 1912, not especially for the modern quintet, but for: 2 cornettos, althorn in Eb, valve trombone and tuba. They have become classic repertoire for the brass quintet, they are played very often, the style being somewhat ”Russian-Brahms-ish”.
It seems that the modern brass chamber music cradle has stood in Skt. Petersburg in Russia. Up to 1900 there was a flourishing environment for brass playing and all the 3 listed composers, Mauer, Ramsöe and Ewald have worked here. Ramsöe and Mauer have even been colleagues in the Italian Theater Orchestra where Maurer was the concert master and Ramsöe played Viola.
Fig. 91 BOLSHOI BRASS QUINTET . A c.1895 Photo (standing from the left: Vassily Brandt (1869-1923), Ivan Lipaev (1865-1942); sitting left – Mikhail Tabakov (1877-1956), F. Putkamer)
Fig. 92 A 1922 photo (From left to right: Vitold Patsevich, Vassily Brandt, Feodor Shevchenko, Dmitry Gruzinsky)
21. THE BUILDING OF BRASS INSTRUMENTS
The invention of the valve made the production of brass instruments grow perceptible. At first in small firms, driven by craftsmen, but after 1850 in big factories with more than a 100 employees. The establishment of commercial houses made the link to a bigger market. The smaller firms specialized in the production of bells, valves or mouth pieces.
Fig. 93 LITHO: BLECH-BLASINSTRUMENTENMACHER, ca. 1870, GERMANY . Brass instruments gradually were fabricated all over Europe
Fig. 94 BRASS INSTRUMENT MAKERS WORKSHOP. colored woodcut by G. Luvles 1880, Germany
Fig. 95 WAREHOUSE OF THE GAUTROT INSTRUMENTS FACTORY, PARIS. ca. 1880
Between the World exhibition in London 1851 and the World exhibition in Turin Italy in 1911, a range of exhibitions were showing brass instruments with improvements, inventions and patents, and it was possible to get prices for them. Paris had up til now been the promotor for new ideas, but after some time the German instrument makers came along.
Fig. 96 Medals won by the French firms COURTOIS, F. BESSON and GAUTROT and the German firm ANTON HÜLLER
22. GERMAN INSTRUMENT MAKERS
MARKNEUKIRCHEN – (until 1858 called Neukirchen) is a town in the part of Germany called Sachsen, just at the border with the Czech Republic. Up til this time there still is at huge amount of instrument builders, in various firms.
Fig. 97 Instrument company SHUSTER and CO, Markneukirchen 1890
Fig. 98 All employees at SHUSTER and CO 1892
Fig. 99 Instrument maker Robert Petzold (1870-1951) from Markneukirchen with his smallest and his biggest instrument. A pocket Cornet and a large Imperial bass, both with rotary valves. Below sees a picture of his workshop.
Fig. 100 C-TRUMPET WITH CROOK TO Bb, from company WILHELM AUGUST GLIER (1849-1934), MARKNEUKIRCHEN
Fig. 101 ECHO CORNET, build by FRANZ HOERTH (1862-1932), Saarbrücken. Echo-instruments were very popular, below a picture of the evangelical preacher and cornetist J. Manton Smith with such an instrument. The pictures are from around 1870 by the studio of Lambert Weston & Sons i Folkestone (UK).
23. INSTRUMENT MAKING IN ENGLAND – BESSON
The Besson-firm was established in Paris in 1837, by Gustav Auguste Besson (1830-1874), who as an 18-year old boy designed cornets, superior to all other cornets. But because of the severe competition by instrument makers like Sax, Courtois og Gautrot, he moved the production to London in 1857, where he built a large factory. In 1894 Besson had 131 employees, he produced 100 brass instruments a week and he had contact with 10.000 orchestras and ensembles. Besson became the biggest supplier of the English Brass Bands and the instruments were exported to other countries as well.
Fig. 201 EXHIBITION WINDOW, SHOWING BRASS INSTRUMENTS BY BESSON, ENGLAND. Woodcut 1885.
Fig. 202 AVERSIDTING FOR BASSON’s PARIS COMPANY, 1889. Bessons daughter Martha continued to lead the Besson shop in Paris
Another important brass instrument company was established by Henry Distin (1819-1903), son af John Distin. After having lived as a performer with his father and brothers Henri Distin established an instrument manufacturing and sales concern, Distin & Co., in London 1849. He first sold Adolph Sax’s instruments but later also his own instruments. Distin became the leading brass instrument manufacturer in Britain and he was able to influence the Brass band development at a critical stage of its development, Following receipt of a prize medal for the superiority of his instruments over European competitors at the Paris World’s Exposition, in 1868, he sold the business including a shop on Cranbourne to what would become the Boosey company and later Boosey and Hawkes. In 1876, Henri Distin came to the United States and set up a business manufacturing cornets in New York and later in Williamsport, Pensylvania making a full line of brass instruments (se more about Distin in ROMANTICISM I, OTHER INSTRUMENT FAMILYS and ROMANTICISM II. BRASS BANDS).
Fig. 203 AVERSIDTING FOR DISTINS LONDON FACTORY SHOWING HIS GOLD MEDALS.
Fig. 204 DISTINS FACTORY IN PHILADELPHIA, USA 1883.
Fig. 205 HENRY DISTIN PLAYING ON HIS TENORHORN WITH 7 BELLS, 1878
Fig. 206 English: TENORHORN in F, German: ALTO HORN in F. WITH CROOKS. DISTIN ca. 1855
25. A WELL TRAINED ORCHESTRA
Fig. 207 A WELL-TRAINED ORCHESTRA. From a series of futuristic pictures by Jean-Marc Côté and other artists issued in France in 1899, 1900, 1901 and 1910. Originally in the form of paper cards enclosed in cigarette/cigar boxes and, later, as postcards, the images depicted the world as it was imagined to be like in the then distant year of 2000. He assumes that even playing a brass instrument will be mechanical in the future.