Latest updated 6/2 2021
CONTENTS IN THIS CHAPTER:
1 – JAZZ and RHYTHM
2 – FEMALE BRASS PLAYERS IN JAZZ
3 – BRASS INSTRUMENTS IN POPULAR MUSIC
4 – WELL KNOWN BRASS PLAYERS IN POPULAR MUSIC.
5 – TECHNIQUE AND TRAINING
6 – HISTORICAL PERFORMANCE
7 – “PRIMITIVE” BRASS or LIPWIND INSTRUMENTS
8 – ASSOCIATIONS AND MAGAZINES FOR BRASS PLAYERS
9 – THE NATIONAL SOUND AND EXPRESSION
10 – SOUND AND HARMONY
11 – POSTSCRIPT
THE 20′ CENTURY III (1900 – )
1. JAZZ and RYTHM
Fig.1 HULL & ARNOLD’S QUADRILLE BAND (ca. 1838-1888)
Organized in 1838 shortly after the Hull family settled near Constantine, the band became known throughout Michigan and Indiana as one of the premiere orchestras of its kind. Led by violinist and caller John Hull, the band included Daniel Arnold, clarinet; Oliver P. Arnold, cornet; and Morris I. Arnold, trombone.
Fig.2 A BAND WITH TUBA
– together with banjo, violin and guitar
The Jazz was founded in New Orleans in the beginning of the 20th century, where it sprouted from spirituals, marching music and dance music. The brass instruments were part of it just from the start, but the strengths were individual and not standardised, as an example: very often violins, valve trombones or tubas were involved.
Fig.3 ROBINSON’s BAND PLAYS EVERYTHING
This cartoon was on the cover of New Orleans newspaper “The Mascot” for 15 November, 1890. The African-American band is playing on trumpet, valve trombone, drums and clarinet. People, horses, and dogs are either horrified or knocked prostrate into the street by the music. A man is shouting: For god sake stop! The very earliest jazz must have seemed confusing and provocative!
Fig.4 JAZZ FUNERAL PROCESSION WITH MARCHING JAZZ-BAND, AN OLD TRADITION GOING BACK TO c. 1900
A typical jazz funeral begins with a slow march, from funeral home or church to the cemetery. Throughout the march, the band plays hymn tunes. A change in the tenor of the ceremony takes place, after the deceased is entombed and the music becomes more upbeat, often starting with a hymn played in a swinging fashion, then going into popular hot tunes.Those who follow the band just to enjoy the music are called the second line, and their style of dancing, in which they walk and sometimes twirl a parasol or handkerchief in the air, is called second lining.
Fig.5 BUDDY BOLDEN (1877-1931) AND HIS ORCHESTRA ca. 1903-1905
No. 2 from the left in the back row is Willie Cornish on valve trombone and to his right Boddy Bolden on cornet.
Little by little, the strength was standardized to a “Dixieland” – or “New Orleans Jazz band” with three in the front row (trumpet, clarinet and trombone) and a rhythm group.
The Jazz had its own musical language from the start, but had its influence on the technical playing method on trumpet and trombone, and from all music styles.
Fig.6 The Original Dixieland Jass Band Dixieland jazz band, PROMOTION POSTCARD 1918
1918 From left: Drummer Tony Sbarbaro , trombonist Edwin “Daddy” Edwards, cornetist “Nick” LaRocca, clarinetist Larry Shields, and pianist Henry Ragas The group made the first jazz recordings in 1917, and claimed authorship, of many jazz standards, the most famous being “Tiger Rag”. In late 1917 the spelling of the band’s name was changed to Original Dixieland Jazz Band. ODJB billed itself as the “Creators of Jazz”. Band leader Nick LaRocca argued that ODJB deserved recognition as the first band to record jazz commercially and the first band to establish jazz as a musical idiom or genre.
Fig.7 THE TRUMPET PLAYER LOUIS ARMSTRONG (1901-1971)
In this picture as a member of the trumpet player King Oliver’s Orchestra (about 1922), front row, no. 2 from the left. Armstrong was a giant trumpet player and unique in the Jazz, and until the 1930ies he blew everyone away. At first, he played the cornet but later he changed to the trumpet.
Fig.8 LOUIS ARMSTRONG and HIS “HOT FIVE”
After playing as “side man” in other orchestras, he recorded (1925 – 1926) some epoch changing records in his own name with his “HOT FIVE” and “HOT SEVEN”. The trombone player was KID ORY.
Fig.9 KID ORY (1886-1973
American trombonist and composer who with his simple and rustic style of playing was (perhaps?) the inventor of the role for the trombone in classic three-part contrapuntal New Orleans jazz improvisation. By 1911 Ory was leading one of the best-known bands in New Orleans. Among its members at various times were Sidney Bechet, King Oliver and Louis Armstrong.
When the New Orleans bands was playing in a wagon around the streets, the trombonist, in order to have enough room to maneuver his slide, would sit at the back of the wagon, giving the name “tailgate trombone” to this style, simple bass lines with a lot of glissandos.
Fig.11 THE COLORED IDEA BAND OF SUNNY CLAY ARRIVES IN SYDNEY 1828
– playing their newly composed “Australian Stomp” with performing dancers
In early jazz, the tuba had a heyday as a pulse-giving bass instrument.
State Library of New South Wales collection.
Fig.12 THE WOLVERINE ORCHESTRA – A BAND WITH SOUSAPHONE
The most famous member was cornet player BIX BEIDERBECKE (1903-1931). He was one of the most influential jazz soloists of the 1920s and he had an unusual purity of tone and a gift for improvisation. He has been called a lyrical pendant to Louis Armstrong. The other brass players was Al Gande – trombone, and Min Leibrook – sousaphone.
Fig.13 LOUIS ARMSTRONG IN FRONT OF A BIG BAND
In 193’s and until 1947, Armstrong appeared as a foreground figure with big bands.
Fig.14 LOUIS ARMSTRONG AND HIS ALL STARS
After his performances as a soloist with various big bands/orchestras, Armstrong renewed the New Orleans Jazz with his “All Stars” in 1947. The trombone player was Jack Teagarden who gave the trombone a new standard role in the jazz, he played brilliant and with eminent skill, technical as well as a musical elegance..
Fig.15 JACK TEAGARDEN AS A YOUNG MAN
He changed the importance of the trombone, from being a slow instrument to an instrument that could be played brilliant, technical as well as with musicality.
In the 1930ies, the Jazz bands became bigger. The big orchestras had three trumpets and three trombones at first; later in the 1940s, they had four trumpets and four trombones( together with five saxophones and a rhythm section). In this swing time, the music asked for higher and higher playing from the brass players, especially from the 1st trumpet (in Big Bands called the “lead trumpet”).
Fig.16 DUKE ELLINGTON’S (1899-1974) ORCHESTRA 1947
This orchestra had a special style, “the jungle style”. One element was a characteristic “speaking” solo playing on trumpet and trombone, a kind of wah-wah sound. You perform this with a plunger mute, with or without a small pixie mute mute behind the plunger. This playing method was developed by the trumpet player Bubber Miley (1903-1932) together with the trombone player Joe “tricky” Sam Nanton (1904-1946) and later used among others by the trumpet players Coottie Williams (1908-1985) and Ray Nance (1913-1976). Ellington used this style throughout his whole career, writing directly for his musicians and their personal playing style. When playing in the “Cotton Club” in New York, this wah-wah sound made the illusion that the whole band came directly from Africa. Ellingtons trumpet-section got bigger up to 4 players, but he always used only 3 trombones. When trombonist Lawerence Brown joined the Ellington band 1932 as lead player it became the first jazz band to have three trombones. The 3 players had each their own special personality: L. Brown had for the time a “modern” and lyrical style, Juan Tizol played on valve trombone (se fig. 37), and then Tricky Sam Nanton with his plunger style. Ellington got a bass trombonist in the band in 1961, Chuck Conners.
Fig.17 THREE OF DUKE ELLINGTON’S “SIDE MEN”: BUBBER MILEY, TRICKY SAM NANTON og COOTIE WILLIAMS
Fig.18 COUNT BASIE (1927-1984) BAND (photo 1943)
The Basie Band had the same development in the combination af instruments as the Ellington Band. From being a smaller group, it grew bigger into a standard big band size with 4 trumpets and until 1963 with 3 trombones, then with 4 trombones incl. a bass trombone, played by Bill Hughes.
Fig.19 TOMMY DORSEY (1905-1956)
Even if there were very good trombone players in the 1930s and 1940s, like for example Jack Teagarden, the Jazz-trombone was seen as a lyrical instrument and trombone payers found a niche in playing “ballad-like” or “sweet-trombone” in the higher register. Tommy Dorsey was the perfect performer in this style and he had a big influence on the general opinion of the trombone being a lyrical instrument, and became an example to many trombone players. Tommy Dorsey was also the leader of his own Big Band, which was one of the most popular bands during the “Swing” time.
Fig.20 DIZZY GILLESPIE (1917-1993), TRUMPET and J.J. JOHNSON (1924-2001), TROMBONE
– became leading instrumentalists in the time of the Bob music, with an almost explosive but full controlled playing method. D. Gillespie had something special, the trumpet with the bell pointing upwards. The trombone was a bit slow in this Bob period, not being able to play as fast as the trumpet, but J.J. Johnson broke the “code”. He essentially proved convincingly that anything Gillespie could do on the trumpet could now also be matched on the trombone. Johnson is regarded as the true founder of the modern school of jazz trombone, developing astounding (for the time) speed and agility, and he became an example for all jazz trombonists.
Fig.21 TROMBONE DUO
The popularity of the jazz trombone got a boost when J.J. JOHNSON in 1954 formed a quintet with trombonist KAI WINDING and a prominent rhythm group.
KAI WINDING (1922-1983) was earlier a member of the Benny Goodman and Stan Kenton bands. He participated in the famous “Birth of Cool” sessions in 1949-1950 (under Miles Davis leadership), appearing on four of the twelve tracks, while J.J. Johnson appeared on the other eight.
Fig.22 MILES DAVIS (1926-1991)
– had played with the “Bob-kings” Dizzy Gillespie and the sax player Charlie Parker, but he developed quite another style, the “Cool-jazz”, that had less but longer tones and a very lyrical sound. He developed this style throughout his whole career.
Fig.23 STAN KENTON’S (1912-1979) ORCHESTRA
With this band the top for mbig bands is reached in size as well as in sound volume. The brass section has come to five trumpets, five trombones (with two bass trombones, with one of them playing the tuba as well).
Fig.24 THE CONN 16E MELLOPHONIUM
Between 1960-1963 the loudest playing big band in the world got even louder with the add of four mellophoniums. The Mellophonium was an instrument developed by Conn in the late 1950s for use in marching bands.The mellophone is a alto horn/tenor horn in F/Eb shaped like a trumpet, with the bell pointing forward. The model 16E was manufactured by Conn for over twenty years.
Fig.25 STAN KENTON’s MELLOPHONE SECTION in 1960
From left to right: Gene Roland, Keith La Motte, Dwight Carver, Carl Saunders at the “Adventures in Blue” recording session.
Kenton’s wish was a band that appeared like a ”concert-orchestra” (almost like a parallel to Wagner’s big symphony orchestra) instead of being “just” a dance orchestra.
This photo is from the University of North Texas Library.
fig.26 RAY STARLING
Of Kenton’s mellophone players Dwight Carver og David Horton was former horn players but otherwise most of Kenton’s mellophone players were trumpeters who would rather play the trumpet. Ray Starling was the exception who had an idiomatic relationship with the instrument and who was a distinct soloist on precisely mellophone.
Fig.27 TWO FAMOUS LEAD TRUMPET PLAYERS
Left: Maynard Ferguson (1928-2006), Stan Kenton’s orchestra
Right: Cat Anderson (1916-1981), Duke Ellington’s orchestra. In the Big Bands the music became higher and higher for the 1st trumpet player, the leading trumpet. So far, both Ferguson and Anderson culminated in extreme high playing. With the leading trumpet style, the Jazz contributed with a special playing technique and sound on the trumpet, which is not only heard in Big bands, but also in film and popular music
Fig.28 THE FIREBIRD-TRUMPET MADE ESPECIALLY TO MAYNARD FERGUSON
– trumpet with a “Dizzy” bell, with valves as well as a trombonistic slide.
Fig.29 WYNTON MARSALIS (1961)
– is a jazz trumpeter, composer, teacher, music educator, and artistic director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. He is known as a jazz musician who plays modern jazz but he has also recreated the old jazz from the 1920s and 30’s. As a musician, Marsalis possesses a remarkable stylistic range. In addition to being a jazz musician, he has performed and recorded the classic trumpet concerts of Haydn and Hummel, arias for soprano and trumpet by G.F. Händel and band solos such as Carnival in Venice – and all done with the highest possible quality. Wynton Marsalis currently serves as director of the Julliard School of Music Jazz studies program.
Fig.30 GEORGE ROBERTS (1928-2014)
– was known as a bass trombone player, of Mr. Bass trombone, in The Stan Kenton band, where he played from 1950-1953. After that, he was a freelance-musician in Los Angeles, and there he created together with the arranger Nelson Riddle a special bass trombone style, based on his ideas of melodic playing on a bass trombone. G. Roberts made the world look different on his instrument, and brought focus on the bass trombone, not only in the Jazz, but also in film-, popular music and in the classical music. Stan Kenton was one of the first who used the bass trombone, but before in the 60s it became a standard part of the Big band.
SPECIAL BRASS INSTRUMENTS IN JAZZ
The trumpet and the trombone are the dominating brass instruments of the Jazz, together with the members of the family: the flugelhorn and the bass trombone. Other brass instruments are not as often used.
Fig.31 TWO VALVE TROMBONE PLAYERS
There are two special musicians on the valve trombone: JUAN TIZOL (1900-1984), best known as a member of the Duke Ellington’s Orchestra, although he never played solo or improvised, but he composed some of the well-known Ellington melodies: “Caravan” and “Perdido” and Ellington let him often play together with the saxophones. BOB BROOKMEYER (1929-2011) was the leader of an orchestra, he was a composer and the best-known jazz musician on valve trombone, he played for instance with the Gerry Mulligan Quartet.
– is a valve instrument with forward bell and a bore between trombone and baritone. It was designed by the King company in the 1930s for marching bands to give a trombone sound without an “unpractical”slide. It has been especially known from the J.J. Johnson and Kai Winding Quintet recordings.
Fig.33 MELLOPHONE PLAYER DON ELLIOT (1926-1984)
Most of Kentons mellophone-players was trumpet players who actually preferred to play the trumpet. Don Elliot took one step further and established himself as a bob jazz-player on the mellophone – maybe the only one ever ? ( he also was a singer, a composer and played trumpet and vibraphone). Elliott commissioned the Conn company to create a mellophone with the bell pointing up for his live performances.
Fig.34 TRUMPET PLAYER DON CHERRY (1936-1995) used THE POCKET CORNET quite often:
Fig.35 2 SPECIAL BRASS INSTRUMENTS IN JAZZ: JOHN CLARCK (1944-), french horn RICH MATTESON (1929-1993) euphonium.
John Clark (1944-) is one of the few Jazz “horn players”. He wrote music books and taught at the State University of New York 2001-2008 – he is now on faculty at Manhattan School of Music.
Rich A. Matteson, (1929-1993) – American jazz artist, collegiate music educator, international jazz clinician, big band leader, and jazz composer/arranger. Euphonium was his primary instrument, although Matteson was proficient on several other low brass instruments, particularly tuba. Matteson was the only significant euphonium soloist in jazz. In 1986, the University of North Florida appointed Matteson the Kroger Distinguished Professor of American Music.
1990 — Inducted into the Jazz Educators Hall of Fame
1992 — Down Beat Lifetime Achievement Award
2000 — Inducted into the Jacksonville Jazz Festival Hall of Fame for his significant contributions to jazz as an educator and musician
Fig.36 HOWARD JOHNSON AND DAVID BARGERON
The tuba often was the bass instrument in the New Orleans- music and later used by Gil Ewans, and it is often used as an extra instrument for bass trombone players in modern Big Bands. However, Bargeron and Johnson developed the tuba from being a bass instrument to a jazz solo instrument.
Howard Lewis Johnson (1941-) is an American jazz musician known mainly for his work on tuba and baritone saxophone, although he also plays the bass clarinet, trumpet and other reed instruments
David W. “Dave” Bargeron (1942-) is an American trombonist and tuba player most famous for playing with the jazz-rock group Blood, Sweat and Tears. He became famous for his jazz-rock solo on the tuba in “And When I Die/One room country shack”
Howard Johnson and Dave Bargeron has taken “jazz tubism” a step further as members of the group GRAVITY which consists of no less than 6 tubas and rhythm section.
Gravity tuba players from left: Dave Bargeron, Bob Stewart, Nedra Johnson, Howard Johnson, Velvet Brown, , Bob Stewart.
Fig.38 WYCLIFE GORDON on soprano trombone (slide trumpet) a very rare instrument in jazz
Fig.39 THE CIMBASSO, AN EVEN MORE RARE INSTRUMENT IN JAZZ
Mattias Cederberg in front of WDR-big band, Cologne, Germany.
Fig.40 JAMES MORRISON (1962- ), AUSTRALIA
– is a multi-instrumental Australian jazz musician. Widely known for his trumpet playing, he has also perform, on bass trumpet, trombone, euphonium and tuba. Here he is seen with a “normal” trumpet and a bass trumpet. In addition, he was part in the developing of the SUPERBONE-TROMBONE (made by SCHAGERL, Austria) that (like the firebird-trumpet) both has valves and a slide.
2. FEMALE BRASS PLAYERS IN JAZZ
Today, there are many female brass players, also in jazz. But this has not always been the case – for many years they were a rarity. A notable exception was 2 all female big bands:
RAY HUTTON AND HER MELODEARS
Odessa Cowan, known professionally as Ina Ray Hutton (1916 – 984), was an American singer and bandleader. She led one of the first all-female big bands Ina Ray Hutton and Her Melodears, 1934 -1939
THE INTERNATIONAL SWEETHARTS OF RYTHM
– were active 1938 – 1946. Founder and first bandleader was principal of Woods Country Life School Laurence C. Jones. He was inspired by Ina Ray Hutton and Her Melodears to create a school big band. Members from different races, including Latina, Asian, Caucasian, Black, Indian and Puerto Rican, lent the band an “international” flavor. The band got professional and known though mostly to black audiences the band became professional and quickly rose in popularity playing in theatres like the Apollo in Harlem and the Howard Theatre in Washington when the band set a new box office record of 35,000 patrons in one week of 1941. Things though were not always wonderful for the band, especially when they traveled in the south where they were forced to sleep and eat on their bus because of the segregation laws that prevented them from using restaurants and hotels. They were admired by their peers, including the likes of Count Basie and Louis Armstrong.
MEMBERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SWEETHARTS OF RHYTHM:
CLORA BRYANT (1927 – 2019)
HELEN JONES (1923 – 2020
TINY DAVIES (1910 – 1994)- THE FEMALE LOUIS ARMSTRONG
Louis Armstrong tried (unsuccessfully) to lure Davis away from the International Sweethearts of Rhythm by offering her ten times her salary.
3 – BRASS INSTRUMENTS IN POPULAR MUSIC
“Popular” music is widely used as a name for all kinds of music, like film music, musicals and much more, and almost always brass instruments are involved, with their most jazzy-ish and show-ish effects.
Fig.41 “CARTOON” MUSIC
The sound tapes for cartoon films often show brass players who use special sound effects, and who play in a jazzy swinging style, like in the films “Tom and Jerry”, “Looney Tunes” and more, or like in the Disney film “Trombone-Trouble” from 1944 where Donald Duck himself playes the trombone. There has always been a special love for the tuba in cartoon music, like for example in “the Flintstones” (1960-1966) where there is an extreme amount of tuba, often playing solo or in long cadenzas, used as fabulous background music.!
4. WELL KNOWN BRASS PLAYERS IN POPULAR MUSIC
Most well known performers in popular music are singers, but it happens that an instrumentalist is the basis for the success. Brass players mostly are part of an ensemble or a band, but there are some brass players who have become famous themselves. Not because they were very tremendous instrumentalists, but maybe because of their playing method or special style that did the trick, in a short or longer period. Of course there are musicians who were both great players, as well as great performers with their special style, for example Louis Armstrong, who was the top in jazz music, but at the same time one of the most popular and well known musicians in the 20th century: at a concert in New Orleans in 1968 he was introduced as:”the most famous man in the world”.
Fig.42 STATUES OF LOUIS ARMSTRONG
– New Orleans Airport, Algier – New Orleans, Armstrong Park – New Orleans, National habor – Maryland, Las Vegas.
Fig.43 GLEN MILLER (1904 – 1944)
American trombone player and arranger who especially became famous as the leader of an orchestra. During the Swing Time, the Big Bands were either “hot” which means: jazz orientated, or “sweet” which means: focused on popular music. Miller did both, but by focusing on orchestral playing rather than jazz soloists he got his own special sound. Although he had worked as an arranger himself, most of his “hits” were written/arranged by others, and often with his special sound that came by letting a clarinet and a tenor saxophone play the melody in octaves. He was not especially famous as a jazz musician, but pieces like “In the Mood”, “Moonlight Serenade”, “Pennsylvania 6-5000″, “Chattanooga Choo Choo”, “A String of Pearls”, “American Patrol”, “Tuxedo Junction”, and “Little Brown Jug” made his orchestra the most popular Big Band of all. Between 1939 – 1943, Glen Miller was the musician whose records sold best – Of “Tuxedo Junction” itself 115000 records were sold in the first week it was released. The Miller band got so popular that it traveled to Hollywood, California, to make two movies for Twentieth-Century Fox, Sun Valley Serenade (1941) and Orchestra Wives (1942). and then in 1954 came a film about Glenn Millers “The Glenn Miller Story”. Although the popularity of the Big Bands lessened late 40ies, Glenn Miller never was a temporary success, and his music is still being played.
Fig.44 THE GLENN MILLER BAND IN ACTION
Fig.45 “EDDIE” CALVERT (1922 – 1978), ENGLAND
was launched as “THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN TRUMP”. He succeeded with a melodic repertoire played with a big warm sound and a “Mexican” vibrato. His best-selling hits “worldwide” were: “Oh Mein Papa” and “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White”.
Fig.46 CHRIS BARBER (1930 – ), ENGLISH TROMBONE PLAYER AND ORCHESTRAL LEADER
– came from the revival of New Orleans music that blossomed in England in the 50ies and 60ies. Although his fame became less by the upcoming of rock music and the Beatles, he continued his carrier. Never has a trombone player been so popular in such a long time.
Fig.47 HERB ALBERT (1935 – ), AMERICAN TRUMPET PLAYER AND ORCHESTERLEADER
– got known as the leader of “Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass”. His special style with a “cheap”, lazy and south-american inspired sound got an enormous impact with the numbers ” A Taste of Honey”, “Tijuana Taxi” and “This Guy’s in Love with You”. He sold more than 72 million records. Herp Alpert is the only recording artist to hit No. 1 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 pop chart as both a vocalist and an instrumentalist.
5. TECHNIQUE AND TRAINING
The technical aspects of playing a wind instrument
Until the middle of the 20th century, there was very little knowledge about embouchure or breathing technique: If you got enough “talent”, you could be a professional. Although it was common known that the technique one should have to keep a career as a professional solo trumpet player in a symphony orchestra, only lasted until one reached the age of 40. All this has changed since. With developing systems, (like in sports) it is possible to grow physical strength and control by training. These ideas are based on study and experience, and as a result less professional brass players “break down” and are able to keep their playing standard up to a high age. The extreme example is the American trumpet player Adolph Herset who was a solo trumpet player in the Chicago Symphony Orchestra until he became 79 – long after the “normal” retiring age. (See Trumpet, the 20th century I)
Fig.48 JAMES STAMP (1904-1985) and CARMINE CARUSO (1904-1987)
JAMES STAMP was a trumpet player but made his career as a teacher. His system for all brass players is described in his book: “Warm-ups + Studies”. The Stamp exercises emphasize musical principles as much as physical concepts to accomplish the desired technical results. Perhaps the most famous Stamp aphorism was that if it sounded correct (i.e. «in-tune») then one was doing it correctly. On the other hand, conversely, if one did not play correctly it would not sound correct. Indeed, everything that has been said or written about Mr. Stamp and his teaching/playing concepts reinforces this basic idea.
CARMINE CARUSO started with music at an early age. At four, it was discovered that he could remember tones – he had absolute pitch. Most of his playing career he made his living as a saxophone player. In 1941, Carmine gave up the big bands in favor of a career of full-time teaching and freelance playing. In 1942, Carmine took his first trumpet student. Within a year, Carmine had forty brass students and he became one of the greatest brass teachers of all times. Brass players from all over the world came to New York to study with him. He had a reputation for being able to help improve players just starting out, detoured talents, and players who already performed well.
Fig.49 ARNOLD JACOBS (1915-1998)
– should also be mentioned here (see THE TUBA, the 20th century I). He was a pioneer in wind techniques and he got students from all over the world. He never wrote a “method” though. On the other hand, many of his students wrote about his ideas and about their experiences when studying with him. To the left: Arnold Jacobs in his room together with a student. Look at all the “breathing” appliances; they are an important part of Jacobs’ method. To the right: A book about Jacobs with his motto: SONG AND WIND, as the title.
6. HISTORICAL PERFORMANCE
Since the 60s, it has become rather wide spread to perform music in a “historic” way, that means with a characteristique pulsating rhythm, almost without vibrato, with the possibility to improvise and played on copies of historical instruments. In the beginning, it was seen as rather amatueristic but today the “historical performances” are top professional, as played by the London Baroque Soloists – who also perform as Orchestre Révolutionaire et Romantique (England), Freiburger Barockorchester (Germany), The Orchestra of the 18th century (Holland) or Il Giardino Harmonico (Italy). At first it was only the music from the Renaissance that was played on instruments from the time the music was written, later from the Baroque as well, and then from the Viennese and Romanticism. There was a lot of discussion about this idea, but it has become more and more accepted, and it even has influenced the way “normal” orchestras play old music. To follow up with the demand, many instrument makers produce “historical” instruments. Some of them are ”old” even in the details, but most of them have “modern” elements as water key, trombone slide in chrome or holes in the trumpets to be able to play difficult notes.
Today there are even amateur musicians playing the old music on historically instruments.
Fig.50 WALTER HOLY (1921 – 2006)
– playing on his coiled “Reiche trumpet” with 3 holes made by Otto Steinkopf. Walter Holy was from Germany and the first trumpeter in the 20th century to play successfully on valveless Baroque trumpets. From 1960, as principal trumpet of the Cappella Coloniensis, he made recordings and demonstrated Baroque instruments in travels throughout the world. Holy plays very softly and in a more chamber-music spirit on his historical instrument than Adolph Scherbaum at the same time did on his valve piccolo trumpet.
Fig.51 THE FIRST RECORDING OF THE BRANDENBURGER CONCERTO No. 2 ON HISTORICALLY INSTRUMENTS
– April 1964, Palais Schönburg.. Holy 4th from left.
Fig.52 SOLO FOR SERPENT
Musicians from the Royal Military School of Music at Kneller Hall performing on historically instruments at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in Berkshire, England. Photo from 1960: Getty
THREE MUSICIANS WHO PLAY HARDCORE” ON HISTORICAL INSTRUMENTS:
Fig. 53 JEAN-FRANCOIS MADEUF, France
Madeuf is at the moment still one of the rare musicians who plays natural trumpet and horn in the most historically informed way, without the aid of vent holes invented for compromise instruments. In 2001 he became the successor to the pioneer Edward H. Tarr at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis ; since 2011 he is also associated teacher at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique in Paris. In 2009 Jean-François Madeuf received the Christopher Monk Award by the Historic Brass Society “for his signifiant contribution as a performer and teacher and his dedication to historically informed performance practice”.Active in numerous Baroque ensembles, among them:
Fig.54 LES TROMPETTES DES PLAISIRS
– a trumpet corps with Madeuf. Notice the special “trumpeter posture” always used by Madeuf when he perform.
Madeuf is also a member of:
Fig.55 LES CUIVRES ROMANTIQUES
An ensemble playing on instruments from the 19´century.
Fig56 ANNEKE SCOTT, England
A leading international exponent of the many number of instruments that make up the family of horns, Anneke Scott’s work time travels from the late seventeenth century through to the present day. Principal Horn of English Baroque Soloists and Révolutionnaire et Romantique. Written method for horn and about the history of the horn.
Fig.57 THE PRINCE REGENT’s BAND:
Richard Fomison, Richard Thomas, Anneke Scott, Phil Dale and Jeff miller – have recreated the sort of music that the Distin family played in their concerts, a compelling mixtures of styles and arrangements by the Distins and by members of the Prince Regent’s Band and performed on the old instruments. In their recordings they have among other instrument played on these old Saxhorns:
Fig.58 ADAM WOOLF, England
First trombone with Sir John Eliot Gardiner’s English Baroque Soloists and Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, A member of His Majestys Sagbutts and Cornetts, and the Caecilia-Concert. He has recorded over 100 CDs and DVDs, among two solo projects, marking the first recordings to feature the trombone as a solo instrument in music from the 16th and 17th centuries. Author of methods for barouque trombone. Member of several ensemblers, among them:
Fig.59 HIS MAJESTYS CORNETTS AND SACKBUTS
– is one af the leading pioneering historic brass ensembles. Established in 1982 by the cornetto player Jeremy West (No. 2 from the right).
Fig.60 ADVERTISEMENT FOR NATURAL HORN from 1989
The horn player Anthony Halstead who sees on the advertisement from the magazine “Brass Bulletin” designed the horn for the Webb company.
Fig.61 THALIA ENS., Amsterdam
– perform wind quintet om period instruments. Natural horn: Hylke Rozema
Fig.62 LANDSHUTER STADTPFEIFER, MÜNCHEN, GERMANY, RECREATING MUSIC BACK FROM 1475
Fig.63 THE INDIANA BRASS KEYED BAND from Indiana, USA
– recreates the early keyed band in the style of the bands from ca.1830.
Fig.64 THE OLD SPECIAL VALVE INSTRUMENTS CAN AGAIN BEEN SEEN AND HEARD
Also amateur ensembles have begun playing old music on historical instruments:
Fig.65 THE ART OF THE POSTHORN
– From Countryside to Concert Hall, is a recording which presents post signals and music associated with the post horn. The performer on post horns are the american trumpet player Douglas Hedwig.
Fig.66 CHESTNUT BRASS, ESTABLISHED 1977:
Bruce Barrie, John Thomas, Marian Hesse, Larry Zimmerman og Jay Krush. C.B.B. have found their very own personal niche as mediators by presenting and actually performing on almost all types of brass instruments with relevant styles and types of repertoire. Photo Credit: Paul Nixdorf .
Fig.67 THE SAXTON CORNET BAND, KENTUCKY, USA, EARLIER IN THE 18th CENTURY:
– AND NOW:
7. “PRIMITIVE” BRASS- or LIPWIND INSTRUMENTS
Apart from the “normal” brass instruments, new versions of real old brass instruments, or rather lip wind instruments (because many of those are not made of brass at all) are still being played on.
Fig.68 Left: Jazz trombonist Steve Turre plays on SEASHELL. Right: INDIAN TRUMPET from 880, India.
Fig.69 THE MALAISIA BAMBOO-PIPE BAND
Fig.70 ALPINE HORN ARE MADE IN ALL SIZES
Fig.71 – and the HUNTING HORN is still used:
Fig.72 RUSSIAN HORN BANDS STILL EXIST
HERE A RUSSIAN HORN CAPELLE OF TODAY IN FRONT OF THE FOUNTAINS ST. PETERSBURG
Fig.73 – AND ON NATURAL TRUMPET
A trumpeter with Florence’s city symbol has performed at the Calcio Storico Games since the days the city was an Italian economic power during the Renaissance:
Fig.74 – OR TRUMPETERS FROM “SBANDIERATORI DEI BORGHI E SESTIERI FLORENTINI” IN FLORENCE
Fig.75 OR TRUMPET PLAYERS PERFORMING ON LONG NATURAL TRUMPETS
in Sibiu Old City Centre, Transylvania, Romania.
Fig. 76 – AND AT THE HOUSEHOLD CAVALERY FANFARE TRUMPETERS, LONDON
Fig.77 – THE AFRICAN KAKAKI TRUMPET IS STILL USED
Fig.78 RENAISSANCE FAIR 2009
Fig.79 A NEW NATURAL HORN: RAM’S HORN WITH BRASS INSTRUMENT MOUTHPIECE
Developed by Ulf Nordlund, Denmark (tel.: 0045.20319684. Mail: Ulfnordlund@yahoo.dk).
Fig.80 FROM THE JERUSALEM NIGHTS FESTIVAL
Fig.81 SILVER TRUMPETS ACCORDING TO BIBLICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Played by Kohanim (members of the Jewish priestly class)
Fig.82 MEMBERS OF THE TAJIK MILITARY BRASS BAND PLAYING KARNAYS
THE KARNAY trumpet is an old instrument still in use in Iran, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, where it is considered a national instrument.
THE DUNG-CHEN TRUMPET is still I the most widely used instrument in Tibetan Buddhist culture.
8. ASSOCIATIONS AND MAGAZINES FOR BRASS PLAYERS
FIG.83 LOGOS FOR INTERNATIONAL BRASS SOCIETYS
In the 2nd part of the 20`th Century, four international associations were established for brass players:
INTERNATIONAL TRUMPET GUILD, INTERNATIONAL HORN SOCIETY, INTERNATIONAL TROMBONE ASSOCIATION and TUBIST UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOODS ASSOCIATION to day is called INTERNATIONAL TUBA EUPHONIUM ASSOSIATION.
FIG.84 FRONT PAGE TO 3 EDITIONS OF BRASS BULLETIN.
During the period 1971-2003, the magazine Brass Bulletin published articles about brass instruments, brass players and events. The magazine was driven and edited by the Jean-Pierre Mathez, Switzerland.
Fig.85 THE HISTORIC BRASS SOCIETY (HBS)
– was founded in 1988. It is an international music organization whose goal is to promote the exchange of serious ideas about the history and performance of brass instruments and brass music, ranging from Antiquity through the twentieth century.
9. THE NATIONAL SOUND & EXPRESSION
As told earlier, there has been national traditions in playing method and sound. Until the 50’s, this individuality was more pronounced than today. Suddenly the orchestras began to sound like each other (see under USA) and it became more and more difficult to hear which part of the world an orchestra came from. At this moment, orchestras try to find their roots again and go back to their national identity in sound and style.
By listening to recordingss, you can hear the changes in finding the ideal sound according to the nationality. As an example you can listen to the English horn sound using the French valve horn up till the fifties: the sound was very light, whereas the sound of the horns in the records of the London Symphony Orchestra from the end of the 20th century, (using the English Paxman horn with a big bore) have an extreme dark and full sound. Strangely enough, the sound of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is the opposite. The sound of the horns in the old records is soft and dark, whereas it nowadays is more compact with more overtones.
GERMANY AND AUSTRIA
Fig.86 THE HORN SECTION OF THE VIENNA PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA, WITH VIENNA HORN AND WAGNER TUBAS
– at the recording of the Rhine Gold 1960/1961, conducted by Georg Solti. 1st row from the left: Gottfried von Freiberg, Josef Veleba, Josef Koller, Otto Nitsch, Leopold Kainz, Wolfgang Tomböck sen., Josef Samwald – 2nd row with the Wagner tubas: Roland Berger, Hans Berger, Emil Kreuziger, Josef Lackner
(NOTE: The horns are seated in the so-called Wiener arrangement with the 1st hornist furthest away in the picture – this arrangement has now been abandoned)
In Germany and Austria, the brass playing culminated in the late Romanticism. According to that period, the sound was dark, with f-horn and trumpets with rotating valves, and based on playing together. Around 1900 the Germans were regarded as the leading orchestral brass players. When at that time people started to create orchestras in the USA, it was necessary to import qualified musicians, and as a rule, they were string players from Russia, woodwind players from France and brass players from Germany. Since that time, the sound in Germany has changed to a bit lighter one. In the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, they still keep the old sound tradition by playing on the old instruments or replicas
Fig.87 STEFAN SCHULTZ
– has been a bass trombone player in the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra since 2002. For a very long time solo playing on a bass trombone was something for “Americans”, but that has changed since. Among other things, because of the popularity of Stefan Schultz as a soloist. Photo: Jarek Raczek.
Fig.88 THE FRENCH TRUMPET PLAYER PIERRE THIBAUD 1929 – 2004
He was known as a soloist, principal trumpet in Karl Richter’s orchestra, ptincipal trumpet at recordings of Baroque music with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and a popular teacher, for instance at the Parisian Conservatoire.
Since the 19th century, the instrumental standard in France was very high, and already at that time focused on the skill of the musician playing solo. That is the reason that French brass instruments had a small bore, a light sound, an intense vibrato, and the trumpets always had pump valves. When one of the solo trumpet players in the Parisian Opera in the 1950ies for the first time played on a trumpet with a medium bore, was the comment from his colleague: “are we going to play the flugelhorn?”
French composers like Claude Debussy (1862-1918) and Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) did not appreciate the thick and massive German brass sound at all, but were more focused on the exact timbre of each instrument.
Fig.89 TROMBONE QUARTET FROM PARIS IN AN ADVERTISEMENT FOR THE INSTRUMENT FACTORY SELMER, 1959
From the left: Gabriel Masson, Marcel Galiegue, André Gosset and René Allain. Note: there is still no bass trombone, but only four trombones without the F- valve. Gabriel Masson (1912-1975) was the leading trombone player of that time, he was a teacher at the Conservatoire in Paris and he did rather a lot of trombone solo recordings and chamber music, which was not at all common in the 1960’s.
Fig.90 DUBLIN ORCHESTRAL SOCIETY in the Royal University Concert Hall, c. 1900
Here are all the English specialties from this period: Trumpet parts played on Cornets, French Horns with piston valves and the English Bass Trombone in G with handle.
The method of playing and the way of building instruments was in England for a very long time under French influence, which you can hear on old recordings. In the 1950’s the “Americanising” of the sound – a more dark and full sound – was consequently introduced in England, especially for horns, trombones and tuba. You can clearly hear it in the music of many films that were recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra. The principal trombone of the orchestra, Dennis Wick, said it like this: “The English brass players tend to make a European sound on American instruments”.
The English Brass Bands are an institution of their own, but also they have changed their sound, away from the light French sound with lots of vibrato, towards a fuller sound and a more “common” phrasing.
Fig.91 Top: PRICIPAL PLAYERS IN THE LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA; MAURICE MURPHY, trumpet, and DENNIS WICK, trombone, picture from 1982.
Below: THEIR LATEST “DESCENDANT”: PHILIP COBB got the job at the age of 21 in 2009, and PETER MORE on the job at the age of 18 in 2014 – LSO’s youngest member ever.
Fig.92 VITALY BUJANOVSKY (1928 – 1993)
He was the legendary principal horn player at the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra under Yevgeny Mravinsky and professor at the Leningrad Conservatory. In 1985, he was elected an Honorary Member of “The International Horn Society”.
The Russian brass players clearly show their cultural influence in their way of playing. They got their full sound from Germany, and their expressive vibrato from France. During some time, this vibrato made the Russian Wald horn to sound like a Saxophone!
Fig.93 SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH NAKARIAKOV (1977- )
– followed the Russian brass tradition with very expressive playing.
From the age of 15, he made a series of splendid recordings ooriginal pieces as well as transcriptions of solo pieces for violin or cello, often played on flugelhorn.
Fig.94 JOE ALESSI (1959- )
Principal Trombone of the New york Philharmonic Orchestra and a soloist, teacher/clinician and recording trombone player.
American brass music was mostly based on German tradition, but it has gone beyond that. With their beautiful shining way of playing, they have influenced all those who loved the American brass sound, their precision and their intonation. This idea that being a brass player in a symphony orchestra means to go for it with a 100%, and not necessarily to focus on being a soloist, comes from the USA. In a way by focusing on your part to make the full sound of the brass group to flourish, and therewith to characterize the sound of the whole orchestra. That was a good idea of course, but after some time it made all orchestras to sound alike, and the national characters disappeared. Today the orchestras all over the world do their best to keep their own peculiarity, without losing the technical quality.
Fig.95 CAROL JANISCH (1985-) SOLOTUBIST IN THE PHILADELPHIA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA SINCE 2006
The first female tubist in a leading American orchestra and the youngest employee ever.
Fig.96 CHARLIE VERNON, BASS TROMBONE IN THE CHIGACO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA SINCE 1986
– succeeded Edward Kleinhammer and almost a phenomenon, who with his technique and musicality influenced the understanding of the modern bass trombone.
THE SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES, HOLLAND AND BELGIUM
Fig.97 THE BRASS ENSEMBLE OF THE DUTCH CONCERTGEBOW ORCHESTRA
conducted by their former solo trombone player Ivan Meylemans.
Small countries like Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Belgium and The Netherlands have all throughout time been influenced by England, France, Germany, Russia, and lately especially by the USA. Their brass players though have sat their mark all over the world, as orchestral musicians as well as soloists. As an example, the Dutch Concertgebouw Orchestra was praised by the English magazine “The Gramophone” and called the best symphony orchestra of the world. Of course, that is their opinion, they can only speak for themselves, and maybe it should not be regarded as an eternal truth, but it is important and it tells you something about the high standard of this orchestra.
Fig.98 THE TRUMPET PLAYER HÅKAN HARDENBERGER (1951-), SWEDEN
– made a career as a soloist, a virtuoso who manages the classical as well as the modern repertoire, and some pieces have been written especially for him by important contemporary composers. Hardenberger has been called: “the cleanest, subtlest trumpeter on earth”. H.H is a professor as well at the Malmö Conservatory.
10. SOUND AND HARMONY
If you look at the voices in a choir, and all four voices glide in a way from one to the other, you can illustrate that with a SOUND PYRAMID:
Almost like the instrument family from the Renaissance: the CONSORT. You can look at the strings in an orchestra in the same way:
This is also the case with the ”sax horns” or with the instruments in a British Brass Band: (not the trombones though), flugelhorn, baritone, euphonium, and bass (the tubas):
At the woodwinds it almost is the opposite, different sounds and kaleidoscopically contrasts, called BROKEN CONSORT in the Renaissance
A woodwind quintet could look like this:
– but looking at the “old” brass instruments in a symphony orchestra, it is something in between a ”consort” and ”broken consort”.
A brass quintet could look like this:
Brass instruments look very different: The Soprano instrument (trumpet) plays with valves and the bell pointed forward, the alto instrument (Wald horn) plays with one hand in the bell that is pointed backwards, the tenor instruments (trombone) plays with a slide instead of valves, and the bass, the tuba plays with the bell pointed upwards. Anyhow, they play very well together, but all four instruments have still their archetypal character and symbolic meaning in behold.
THE HIGHEST SPLENDOR AND IMPRESSIVENESS, THE COMIC AND THE SACRAL
Over time, brass instruments have been used as symbols for the most diverse things
Today the symbolism is only a part of their presentation, because all brass instruments can symbolize in their sound almost whatever they want, also the very opposite of their historical meaning.
The trumpet was a military instrument meant to give signals, to send messages:
The trumpet still symbolizes a messenger:
– but can also be a folk instrument, characteristic for a nation:
The Wald horn traditionally was a hunting instrument, close to nature:
– and after that it has become a generally lyrical instrumentto illustrating nature. It is used in many Western movies and in 1978, but the sound of the horn got particular popular as a part of the signature music for the TV series DALLAS.
– and today the horn can be seen and heard I rather new connections, like at a ”jazz-horn-symposium”:
The trombone has been a dooms day instrument, a sublime voice from heaven, (or from hell) and the favourite instrument of the angels:
– But with its “glissandi”, it is used in other contexts with a rather down to earth and unrestrained character like for example:
Being the last instrument the tuba was especially effective as a bass instrument, and without the symbolic meaning of the other instruments, it could well be seen as “the clown in cirkus”:
A BIG instrument!
A comic instrument?
-or as a “bumbler”:
Therefore there are many prejudices about “tubism”. Fortunately tubaister very self-deprecating.
– it took a long time before serious solo music was wrtten for the tuba, but Richard Wagner could use the tuba as the dramatic voice of the dragon Faffner:
– today the tuba even can have an expression quite opposite its origin: elegance and elf like lightens: